Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas Alberto Sols CSIC UAM

Madrid, Spain

Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas Alberto Sols CSIC UAM

Madrid, Spain
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Mansouri M.T.,Ahwaz Jundishapur University of Medical science | Naghizadeh B.,Ahwaz Jundishapur University of Medical science | Lopez-Larrubia P.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas Alberto Sols CSIC UAM | Cauli O.,University of Valencia
Toxicology Letters | Year: 2012

We investigated the behavioural effects of short-term lead (Pb) exposure in adult rats producing blood Pb concentration (<10. μg/dL) below those associated with neurological impairment in occupationally exposed individuals. In order to assess gender differences, we performed parallel behavioural experiments in male and female rats. Exposure to Pb acetate (50. mg/L in drinking water) for 30-45 days induced behavioural alterations consisting in hyperactivity in a novel environment and impairment of spatial memory. These effects were observed only in male rats. Object recognition, motor coordination were unaffected by Pb exposure. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy allows . in vivo assessment of main brain metabolites (glutamate/glutamine, creatine, myoinositol, . N-acetylaspartate and choline) whose changes have been demonstrated in several central nervous system pathologies. Exposure to Pb did not affect metabolite profile in the striatum and increase myoinositol signal in the hippocampus of male rats. The increase in myoinositol in hippocampus suggests early Pb-induced alteration in glial metabolism in this brain region and may represent a potential marker of early brain dysfunction during Pb exposure. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Lopez-Larrubia P.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas Alberto Sols Csic Uam | Cauli O.,Research Center Principe Felipe
Toxicology | Year: 2011

Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) allows the assessment of the water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), a measure of tissue water diffusivity which is altered during different pathological conditions such as cerebral oedema. By means of DWI, we repeatedly measured in the same rats apparent diffusion coefficient ADC in different brain areas (motor cortex (MCx), somato-sensory cortex (SCx), caudate-putamen (CPu), hippocampus (Hip), mesencephalic reticular formation (RF), corpus callosum (CC) and cerebellum (Cb)) after 1 week, 4 and 12 weeks of lead acetate exposure via drinking water (50 or 500. ppm). After 12 weeks of lead exposure rats received albumin-Evans blue complex administration and were sacrified 1. h later. Blood-brain barrier permeability and water tissue content were determined in order to evaluate their relationship with ADC changes. Chronic exposure to lead acetate (500. ppm) for 4 weeks increased ADC values in Hip, RF and Cb but no in other brain areas. After 12 weeks of lead acetate exposure at 500. ppm ADC is significantly increased also in CPu and CC. Brain areas displaying high ADC values after lead exposure showed also an increased water content and increased BBB permeability to Evans blue-albumin complex. Exposure to 50. ppm for 12 weeks increased ADC values and BBB permeability in the RF and Cb. In summary, chronic lead exposure induces cerebral oedema in the adult brain depending on the brain area and the dose of exposure. RF and Cb appeared the most sensitive brain areas whereas cerebral cortex appears resistant to lead-induced cerebral oedema. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Moreno A.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas Alberto Sols CSIC UAM | Soleto I.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas Alberto Sols CSIC UAM | Garcia-Sanz P.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas Alberto Sols CSIC UAM | Garcia-Sanz P.,Autonomous University of Madrid | And 3 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2014

ING proteins have an essential role in the control of a variety of cellular functions whose deregulation is associated with tumor formation and dissemination, such as proliferation, apoptosis, senescence or invasion. Accordingly, loss of function of ING proteins is a frequent event in many types of human tumors. In this report, we have studied the function of ING4, a member of the ING family of tumor suppressors, in the context of normal, non-transformed primary fibroblasts. We show that ING4 negatively regulates cell proliferation in this cell type. The antiproliferative action of ING4 requires its ability to recognize chromatin marks, it is p53-dependent at least in part, and it is lost in an ING4 cancer-associated mutant. Gene expression analysis shows that ING4 regulates the expression and release of soluble factors of the chemokine family. The secretory phenotype regulated by ING4 in primary fibroblasts displays a selective paracrine effect on proliferation, fostering the division of tumor cells, while inhibiting division in primary fibroblasts. Consistently, ING4-expressing fibroblasts promoted tumor growth in vivo in co-injection tumorigenesis assays. Collectively, our results show that ING4 not only can regulate the proliferation of primary non-transformed human fibroblasts, but also orchestrates a secretory phenotype in these cells that promotes tumor cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. These findings support a critical role for ING4 expression in normal cells in the non-cell-autonomous regulation of tumor growth. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Flores C.-L.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas Alberto Sols CSIC UAM | Gancedo C.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas Alberto Sols CSIC UAM | Petit T.,University of Reunion Island
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

We have cloned the Yarrowia lipolytica TPS1 gene encoding trehalose-6-P synthase by complementation of the lack of growth in glucose of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae tps1 mutant. Disruption of YlTPS1 could only be achieved with a cassette placed in the 3′half of its coding region due to the overlap of its sequence with the promoter of the essential gene YlTFC1. The Yltps1 mutant grew in glucose although the Y. lipolytica hexokinase is extremely sensitive to inhibition by trehalose-6-P. The presence of a glucokinase, insensitive to trehalose-6-P, that constitutes about 80% of the glucose phosphorylating capacity during growth in glucose may account for the growth phenotype. Trehalose content was below 1 nmol/mg dry weight in Y. lipolytica, but it increased in strains expressing YlTPS1 under the control of the YlTEF1promoter or with a disruption of YALI0D15598 encoding a putative trehalase. mRNA levels of YlTPS1 were low and did not respond to thermal stresses, but that of YlTPS2 (YALI0D14476) and YlTPS3 (YALI0E31086) increased 4 and 6 times, repectively, by heat treatment. Disruption of YlTPS1 drastically slowed growth at 35°C. Homozygous Yltps1 diploids showed a decreased sporulation frequency that was ascribed to the low level of YALI0D20966 mRNA an homolog of the S. cerevisiae MCK1 which encodes a protein kinase that activates early meiotic gene expression. © 2011 Flores et al.

Gancedo J.M.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas Alberto Sols CSIC UAM
Biological Reviews | Year: 2013

Cyclic AMP (cAMP) plays a key regulatory role in most types of cells; however, the pathways controlled by cAMP may present important differences between organisms and between tissues within a specific organism. Changes in cAMP levels are caused by multiple triggers, most affecting adenylyl cyclases, the enzymes that synthesize cAMP. Adenylyl cyclases form a large and diverse family including soluble forms and others with one or more transmembrane domains. Regulatory mechanisms for the soluble adenylyl cyclases involve either interaction with diverse proteins, as happens in Escherichia coli or yeasts, or with calcium or bicarbonate ions, as occurs in mammalian cells. The transmembrane cyclases can be regulated by a variety of proteins, among which the α subunit and the βγ complex from G proteins coupled to membrane receptors are prominent. cAMP levels also are controlled by the activity of phosphodiesterases, enzymes that hydrolyze cAMP. Phosphodiesterases can be regulated by cAMP, cGMP or calcium-calmodulin or by phosphorylation by different protein kinases. Regulation through cAMP depends on its binding to diverse proteins, its proximal targets, this in turn causing changes in a variety of distal targets. Specifically, binding of cAMP to regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinases (PKAs) affects the activity of substrates of PKA, binding to exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac) regulates small GTPases, binding to transcription factors such as the cAMP receptor protein (CRP) or the virulence factor regulator (Vfr) modifies the rate of transcription of certain genes, while cAMP binding to ion channels modulates their activity directly. Further studies on cAMP signalling will have important implications, not only for advancing fundamental knowledge but also for identifying targets for the development of new therapeutic agents. © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

Valverde A.M.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas Alberto Sols CSIC UAM | Valverde A.M.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Diabetes fermedades Metabolicas Asociadas | Gonzalez-Rodriguez A.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas Alberto Sols CSIC UAM | Gonzalez-Rodriguez A.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Diabetes fermedades Metabolicas Asociadas
Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2D) is the most common endocrine disorder associated to metabolic syndrome (MS) and occurs when insulin secretion can no compensate peripheral insulin resistance. Among peripheral tissues, the liver controls glucose homeostasis due to its ability to consume and produce glucose. The molecular mechanism underlying hepatic insulin resistance is not completely understood; however, it involves the impairment of the insulin signalling network. Among the critical nodes of hepatic insulin signalling, insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) modulate the phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase/Akt/Foxo1 pathway that controls the suppression of gluconeogenic genes. In this review, we will focus on recent findings regarding the molecular mechanism by which IRS2 and PTP1B elicit opposite effects on carbohydrate metabolism in the liver in response to insulin. Finally, we will discuss the involvement of the critical nodes of insulin signalling in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in humans. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

Flores C.-L.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas Alberto Sols CSIC UAM | Gancedo C.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas Alberto Sols CSIC UAM
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

The non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolyticapossesses an ORF, YALI0E20207g, which encodes a protein with an amino acid sequence similar to hexokinases fromdifferent organisms. We have cloned that gene and determined several enzymatic properties of its encoded protein showing that it is an N-acetylglucosamine (NAGA) kinase. This conclusion was supported by the lack of growth in NAGA of a strain carrying a YALI0E20207g deletion.We named this gene YlNAG5. Expression of YlNAG5 as well as that of the genes encoding the enzymes of the NAGA catabolic pathway - identified by a BLAST search - was induced by this sugar. Deletion of YlNAG5 rendered that expression independent of the presence of NAGA in the medium and reintroduction of the gene restored the inducibility, indicating that YlNag5 participates in the transcriptional regulation of the NAGA assimilatory pathway genes. Expression of YlNAG5 was increased during sporulation and homozygous Ylnag5/Ylnag5 diploid strains sporulated very poorly as compared with a wild type isogenic control strain pointing to a participation of the protein in the process. Overexpression of YlNAG5 allowed growth in glucose of an Ylhxk1 glk1 double mutant and produced, in a wild type background, aberrant morphologies in different media. Expression of the gene in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae hxk1 hxk2 glk1 triple mutant restored ability to grow in glucose. © 2015 Flores, Gancedo.

Gonzalez-Rodriguez A.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas Alberto Sols CSIC UAM | Gonzalez-Rodriguez A.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Diabetes fermedades Metabolicas Asociadas Ciberdem | Gonzalez-Rodriguez A.,Hospital Universitario Santa Cristina | Valverde A.M.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas Alberto Sols CSIC UAM | Valverde A.M.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Diabetes fermedades Metabolicas Asociadas Ciberdem
Current Pharmaceutical Design | Year: 2015

RNA interference has emerged as an innovative technology for gene silencing that degrades mRNAs complementary to the antisense strands of double-stranded, short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Its therapeutic application has important advantages over small-molecule drugs since offers the possibility of targeting virtually all genes and allows selective silencing of one or several genes. So far, a relative small proportion of cellular proteins can bind and respond to chemical drugs. Based on that, RNA interference-mediated gene silencing is widely considered as a crucial breakthrough in molecular biology with a direct translation to medicine. The liver has been widely chosen as a model system for the development of RNA interference therapy due to the convenience and availability of effective delivery into this tissue. Numerous preclinical models have revealed promising results, but the safety of this technology remains the primary challenge in developing siRNA based treatments. Liver diseases comprise a broad spectrum of genetic and non-genetic pathologies including acute fulminant liver injury that demands urgent medical care, or chronic pa- thologies such as nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD), alcoholic liver disease, liver cirrhosis, viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In some cases restoration of liver function is not possible and alternatives to liver transplantation offering novel and efficient therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. In this review, we describe recent insights on the advantages of using RNA interference in preclinical settings as a targeted strategy with potential to markedly improve the treatment of liver diseases.

Diaz-Rodriguez E.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Garcia-Lavandeira M.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Perez-Romero S.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Senra A.,University of Santiago de Compostela | And 5 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2012

Somatotrophs produce growth hormone (GH) and are the most abundant secretory cells of the pituitary. Somatotrophs express the transcription factor Pit-1 and the dependence receptor RET, its co-receptor GFRa1 and ligand GDNF. Pit-1 is a transcription factor essential for somatotroph proliferation and differentiation and for GH expression. GDNF represses excess Pit-1 expression preventing excess GH. In the absence of GDNF, RET behaves as a dependence receptor, becomes intracellularly processed and induces strong Pit-1 expression leading to p53 accumulation and apoptosis. How accumulation of Pit-1 leads to p53 expression is unknown. We have unveiled the relationship of Pit-1 with the p19Arf gene. There is a parallel correlation of RET processing, Pit-1 increase and ARF protein and mRNA expression. Interfering the pathway with RET, Pit-1 or p19Arf siRNA blocked apoptosis. We have found a Pit-1 DNA-binding element within the ARF promoter. Pit-1 directly regulates the CDKN2A locus and binds to the p19Arft promoter inducing p19Arf gene expression. The Pit-1-binding element is conserved in rodents and humans. RET/Pit-1 induces p19Arf/p53 and apoptosis not only in a somatotroph cell line but also in primary cultures of pituitary somatotrophs, where ARF siRNA interference also blocks p53 and apoptosis. Analyses of the somatotrophs in whole pituitaries supported the above findings. Thus Pit-1, a differentiation factor, activates the oncogene-induced apoptosis (OIA) pathway as oncogenes exerting a tight control in somatotrophs to prevent the disease due to excess of GH (insulin-resistance, metabolic disease, acromegaly). © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Diaz-Martin J.,Hospital Universitario Virgen Del Rocio | Diaz-Lopez A.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas Alberto Sols CSIC UAM | Moreno-Bueno G.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas Alberto Sols CSIC UAM | Moreno-Bueno G.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Pathology | Year: 2014

Although it is becoming clear that certain miRNAs fulfil a fundamental role in the regulation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a comprehensive study of the miRNAs associated with this process has yet to be performed. Here, we profiled the signature of miRNA expression in an in vitro model of EMT, ectopically expressing in MDCK cells one of seven EMT transcription factors (SNAI1, SNAI2, ZEB1, ZEB2, TWIST1, TWIST2 or E47) or the EMT inducer LOXL2. In this way, we identified a core subset of deregulated miRNAs that were further validated in vivo, studying endometrial carcinosarcoma (ECS), a tumour entity that represents an extreme example of phenotypic plasticity. Moreover, epigenetic silencing through DNA methylation of miRNA genes of the miR-200 family and miR-205 that are down-regulated during EMT was evident in both the in vitro (MDCK transfectants) and in vivo (ECS) models of EMT. The strong correlation between expression and DNA methylation suggests a major role for this epigenetic mark in the regulation of the miR-141-200c locus. Copyright © 2013 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2013 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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