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Casado-Vela J.,CSIC - National Center for Biotechnology | Lacal J.C.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas Alberto Sols | Elortza F.,CIC Biomagune
Proteomics | Year: 2013

Three main molecular mechanisms are considered to contribute expanding the repertoire and diversity of proteins present in living organisms: first, at DNA level (gene polymorphisms and single nucleotide polymorphisms); second, at messenger RNA (pre-mRNA and mRNA) level including alternative splicing (also termed differential splicing or cis-splicing); finally, at the protein level mainly driven through PTM and specific proteolytic cleavages. Chimeric mRNAs constitute an alternative source of protein diversity, which can be generated either by chromosomal translocations or by trans-splicing events. The occurrence of chimeric mRNAs and proteins is a frequent event in cells from the immune system and cancer cells, mainly as a consequence of gene rearrangements. Recent reports support that chimeric proteins may also be expressed at low levels under normal physiological circumstances, thus, representing a novel source of protein diversity. Notably, recent publications demonstrate that chimeric protein products can be successfully identified through bottom-up proteomic analyses. Several questions remain unsolved, such as the physiological role and impact of such chimeric proteins or the potential occurrence of chimeric proteins in higher eukaryotic organisms different from humans. The occurrence of chimeric proteins certainly seems to be another unforeseen source of complexity for the proteome. It may be a process to take in mind not only when performing bottom-up proteomic analyses in cancer studies but also in general bottom-up proteomics experiments. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Puyol M.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Martin A.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas Alberto Sols | Dubus P.,University of Bordeaux Segalen | Khan G.,United Arab Emirates University
Cancer Cell | Year: 2010

We have unveiled a synthetic lethal interaction between K-Ras oncogenes and Cdk4 in a mouse tumor model that closely recapitulates human non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Ablation of Cdk4, but not Cdk2 or Cdk6, induces an immediate senescence response only in lung cells that express an endogenous K-Ras oncogene. No such response occurs in lungs expressing a single Cdk4 allele or in other K-Ras-expressing tissues. More importantly, targeting Cdk4 alleles in advanced tumors detectable by computed tomography scanning also induces senescence and prevents tumor progression. These observations suggest that robust and selective pharmacological inhibition of Cdk4 may provide therapeutic benefit for NSCLC patients carrying K-RAS oncogenes. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Calvo-Garrido J.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas Alberto Sols | Escalante R.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas Alberto Sols
Autophagy | Year: 2010

Ubiquitin-positive protein aggregates are a hallmark of many degenerative diseases. Their presence can be induced by dysfunction in protein degradation pathways such as proteasome and autophagy. We now report several lines of evidence suggesting a defect in autophagy in Dictyostelium cells lacking Vmp1 (vacuole membrane protein 1), an endoplasmic reticulum (eR)-resident protein involved in pathological processes such as cancer and pancreatitis. vmp1 - null cells are unable to survive starvation or undergo autophagic cell death under the appropriate inductive signals. Moreover, confocal studies using the autophagy marker Atg8 and previous transmission electron microscopy analysis showed defects in autophagosome formation. Although Vmp1 is localized in the eR, we found colocalization with Atg8 suggesting a contribution of both Vmp1 and eR in autophagosome biogenesis or maturation. Interestingly, vmp1 - mutant cells showed accumulation of huge ubiquitin-positive protein aggregates containing the autophagy marker GFP-Atg8 and the putative Dictyostelium p62 homologue as described in many degenerative human diseases. The analysis of other Dictyostelium autophagic mutants (atg1-, atg5-, atg6-, atg7- and atg8-) showed a correlation in the severity of their corresponding phenotypes and the presence of ubiquitin-positive protein aggregates suggesting that the deleterious effects associated with development of these aggregates might contribute to the complex phenotypes observed in autophagy deficient mutants. Our results suggest that Vmp1 is required for the clearance of these ubiquitinated protein aggregates through autophagy and highlight a potential role for Vmp1 in protein-aggregation diseases. © 2010 Landes Bioscience.

Fernandez-Velasco M.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | Gonzalez-Ramos S.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas Alberto Sols | Bosca L.,Institute Investigaciones Biomedicas Alberto Sols
Biochemical Journal | Year: 2014

Emerging evidence points to the involvement of specialized cells of the immune system as key drivers in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases.Monocytes are an essential cell component of the innate immune system that rapidly mobilize from the bone marrow to wounded tissues where they differentiate into macrophages or dendritic cells and trigger an immune response. In the healthy heart a limited, but near-constant, number of resident macrophages have been detected; however, this number significantly increases during cardiac damage. Shortly after initial cardiac injury, e.g. myocardial infarction, a large number of macrophages harbouring a pro-inflammatory profile (M1) are rapidly recruited to the cardiac tissue, where they contribute to cardiac remodelling. After this initial period, resolution takes place in the wound, and the infiltrated macrophages display a predominant deactivation/pro-resolution profile (M2), promoting cardiac repair by mediating pro-fibrotic responses. In the present reviewwe focus on the role of the immune cells, particularly in the monocyte/macrophage population, in the progression of themajor cardiac pathologies myocardial infarction and atherosclerosis. © 2014 Biochemical Society.

Munoz-Espin D.,Tumor Suppression Group | Canamero M.,Histopathology Unit | Maraver A.,Tumor Suppression Group | Gomez-Lopez G.,Bioinformatics Unit | And 12 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2013

Cellular senescence disables proliferation in damaged cells, and it is relevant for cancer and aging. Here, we show that senescence occurs during mammalian embryonic development at multiple locations, including the mesonephros and the endolymphatic sac of the inner ear, which we have analyzed in detail. Mechanistically, senescence in both structures is strictly dependent on p21, but independent of DNA damage, p53, or other cell-cycle inhibitors, and it is regulated by the TGF-β/SMAD and PI3K/FOXO pathways. Developmentally programmed senescence is followed by macrophage infiltration, clearance of senescent cells, and tissue remodeling. Loss of senescence due to the absence of p21 is partially compensated by apoptosis but still results in detectable developmental abnormalities. Importantly, the mesonephros and endolymphatic sac of human embryos also show evidence of senescence. We conclude that the role of developmentally programmed senescence is to promote tissue remodeling and propose that this is the evolutionary origin of damage-induced senescence. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

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