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Angel Santana P.,University of Granma | Mario Cisneros L.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias Jorge Dimitrov | Yordan Martinez A.,University of Granma | Yoandris Pascual S.,University of Granma
Revista MVZ Cordoba | Year: 2015

Objective. Quantify the effects of mixing Leucaena (L) with King grass forage, fresh (K) or wilted (Kp), on the fermentation process and chemical composition of mixed silages. Materials and methods. Silos were produced mixing several proportions (kg:kg) K:L and Kp:L (100:0; 75:25; 60:40; 50:50; 40:60 and 0:100) of both types of plants, under a completely randomized design of four replications. The quantity of organic acids (butyric, acetic, lactic), pH, ammonia nitrogen percent and some of the typical bromatologic nutrients of the forage before and after ensiling were measured. The treatment effects were evaluated through variance and regression analysis. Results. The results clearly proved the differences (p<0.05) between King grass and Leucaena which promote its mixing and wilting: better legume contents of crude protein (24 vs. 7%), dry matter (33.77 vs. 22.05%) and crude fiber (26.53 vs. 32.5%). Clear benefits on the conservation process of mixed silages were also measured: higher lactic productions and less butyric, acceptable pH (4.02-4.8) and protein degradation (<8%). In addition, a positive effect on the chemical composition of the aforementioned silages was quantified (crude protein, dry matter and crude fiber progressive improvement). Conclusions. Mixed K+L silages are better than pure K if L is included below 25% in KL and up to 40% when K has been wilted. Higher inclusions of L will worsen the conservation process and will limit its elaboration. Source

Perez A.A.S.,University of Granma | Lopez A.P.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias Jorge Dimitrov | Acosta M.E.F.,Sede Universitaria Municipal de Manzanillo
Tecnica Pecuaria en Mexico | Year: 2010

A continuous in vivo digestibility trial was done to measure the effects of ten regrowth ages (18, 25, 32, 39, 46, 53, 60, 67, 74 and 81 d) on forage yield, chemical composition, nutrient digestibility, energy density and optimal harvest age in napier grass, using energy and digestible protein production per hectare as the main variables. Experimental period was the rainy season and study area was Bayamo, Cuba. Four mature Pelibuey sheep wethers in metabolism cages were fed fresh forage twice daily under a completely randomized design. As regrowth age increased, biomass per hectare increased (up to 2.58 t/cut) and nutrient contents decreased. Crude protein decreased from over 14 % at 18 d to almost 6 % at 81 d, in contrast to progressive increases in dry matter (14 to 18 %) and crude fiber (30 to 38 %). With increasing regrowth age, linear reductions were observed in nutrient digestibility coefficients and estimated metabolizable energy (9.54 to 5.86 MJ/kg DM). Based on a combination of energy and digestible protein yield per hectare, recommended harvest age under the studied conditions is within an interval of 54 and 60 d of regrowth. Source

Ramirez J.L.,University of Granma | Herrera R.S.,Institute Ciencia Animal | Leonard I.,University of Granma | Cisneros M.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias Jorge Dimitrov | And 2 more authors.
Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2011

Quality and yield data of Pennisetum purpureum cv. Cuba CT-169 were used. The data were from an experiment using a random block design with four replicates, connecting them with climate factors. The experiment was carried out on soil of the fluvisol type, and without fertilization and irrigation. An analysis of linear correlation was performed between the indicators of yield, quality, and climate elements in each period. Besides, multiple linear equations were determined between them. High correlations were obtained (coefficients higher than 0.80) with the rainfall and the average temperature (except for the yield, the percentage of leaves and stems, CP, hemicellulose, ash, and OM). With the relative humidity, ADF, lignin, phosphorus, cellulose, ash, and OM were oustanding in the rainy season. In the rainy season, the yield, CP, CF, cell wall, phosphorus, cell content, hemicellulose, ME and NFE were outstanding. Multiple linear equations were determined and the values of the coefficient of determination were above 0.92. In the rainy season, the highest R2 were obtained for CP, and, in the dry season, for DMD, ME and NFE (P < 0.001). It was established the degree of relation between some climatic factors, the yield, and the quality of the CT-169 in the Cauto Valley. Equation sof multiple linear regression were established relating the yield, CP, CF, lignin, DMD, OMD, ME, and NFE with the rainfall, maximum temperature and humidity. This allows to make an approximate calculation of the indicators, out of the knowledge of the climatic factors. This type of study should be continued with other species and environmental conditions, in a way that the results could be further spread. Source

Vargas J.,Technical State University of Quevedo | Benitez D.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias Jorge Dimitrov | Torres V.,Institute Ciencia Animal | Velazquez F.,University of Granma | Erazo O.,Technical State University of Quevedo
Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2011

In order to establish tools for adopting sustainable alternatives for cattle production in the tropical mountain foot of the Republic of Ecuador, a participative non-experimental research system was developed in the Los Ríos and Cotopaxi provinces. The methodologies of Benítez et al. (2000) and Torres (2005) were applied, as well as others of participative diagnosis. The sample included 60 farms, representing 30 % of those with more than five hectares, devoted to cattle rearing in the region. The cattle systems were typified and their effects on the environment were identified, as well as the needs for their sustainable development. The environmental degradation was associated with the application of production alternatives non-suitable to the environmental characteristics and to the absence of an adequate innovation management system, which considers the social and cultural situation. Three groups of farms were identified, being differentiated by the productive purpose, the land slope, the surface area under exploitation, the herd size and the mechanization level. The alternatives applied did not differ, except in few mechanized farms. Out of the demands identified, solutions were defined for sustainable cattle production. The methodology for the participative rural innovation and the sustainable cattle production of the region was adjusted. This methodology is recommended for the tropical mountain foot of the Republic of Ecuador, as long as the necessary controls are guaranteed to adjust the technologies to the corresponding conditions. Source

Martinez Y.,University of Granma | Valdivie M.,Institute Ciencia Animal | Estarron M.,Research Center istencia En Tecnologia seno Del Estado Of Jalisco | Solano G.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias Jorge Dimitrov | Cordova J.,University of Guadalajara
Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2010

In order to evaluate the serum lipid profile and the productive performance of laying hens at 45 weeks of age, 160 White Leghorn (L33) laying hens were allotted during 91 d, according to completely randomized design, into four treatments and 20 repetitions, at the time of laying peak. The treatments consisted of diets containing: 0, 3.3, 6.6, and 10% pumpkin seed meal (PSM) in the feedstuff. The viability, the laying intensity, the mass conversion and the egg weight did not differ significantly between treatments. The concentration of triacylglycerids, total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) disminished in 21.7, 33.7, 16.3, and 55.3 mg/dL, respectively, with 10% of PSM in the feedstuff, compared to the control. Moreover, the atherogenic index decreased from 3.33 to 2.96 and the high-density lipoproteins (HDL) increased, from 47.46 to 49.92 mg/dL, when including in the feedstuff up to 10% of PSM. The octadecanoic (C18:0), oleic (C18: 1n9), linoleic (C18:2n6), and α-linolenic (C 18:3n3) acids were increased in 66.79, 21.60, 57.73, and 20.10 mg/dL, respectively; whereas the arachidonic acid (C20:4n6) declined to 6.69 mg/dL, with 10% of PSM in the feedstuff, compared to the control. It is recommended to use up to 10% of pumpkin seed meal in laying hen diets to substitute plant oil and imported soybean cake, reduce harmful lipids, and increase the essential fatty acids circulating in the blood serum, not harming the productive performance of the hens. Source

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