Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Platina

Santiago, Chile

Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Platina

Santiago, Chile
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Bastias A.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias | Rojas P.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias | Donoso J.M.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias | Hinrichsen P.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Platina | Sagredo B.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias
Ciencia e Investigacion Agraria | Year: 2016

In vitro culture is a very popular technique to mass propagate valuable plant genotypes, including Prunus sp. cultivars. Plants that undergo tissue culture processes often change their morphology and behavior due to the "rejuvenation" caused by the plant growth regulators included in the medium. To evaluate the effects of rejuvenation by tissue culture in Prunus sp., the expression patterns of the aging gene pathway described in plant models, which include the highly conserved microRNA (miRNA or miR) 156/157 and 172 families and several of their respective target genes, were analyzed in distinct Prunus sp. genotypes at different phases of maturity, including true seedling and tissue culture micropropagated plants. In genotypes from true seedling plants, the expression of miR156 and miR157 was higher in the leaves of juvenile plants (one year old) than in those of adult plants (six year old). The opposite pattern was observed with miRNA172 expression. Our results suggest that the aging gene pathway is relatively conserved in Prunus and likely plays a key role in vegetative phase change. However, Prunus sp. plants that were rejuvenated and propagated by in vitro methods showed more erratic behavior for miR156 and miR157 and their target genes, suggesting that tissue culture alters the normal control of the aging pathway. © 2016, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Facultad de Agronomia e Ingenieria Forestal. All rights reserved.

Pedreschi R.,Wageningen University | Pedreschi R.,Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaíso | Hollak S.,Wageningen University | Harkema H.,Wageningen University | And 6 more authors.
South African Journal of Botany | Year: 2016

Persea americana Mill. cv 'Hass' is a subtropical fruit highly appreciated as a rich source of fatty acids mostly of the monounsaturated type. Commonly commercially applied postharvest ripening strategies for the ready to eat market based on high temperature (15 and 20 °C) and external ethylene (0 or 100 ppm applied for 24 h) application did not have a detrimental effect on the fatty acid profile or composition and total amount of oil recovered at edible ripeness. The results of this study have important implications for the fresh fruit and avocado oil industry. The composition of the fatty acid profile in 'Hass' avocados was mostly influenced by growing and environmental conditions. Commercially applied postharvest ripening strategies based on temperature and ethylene did not affect negatively the fatty acid composition of the fruit. © 2015.

Gudenschwager O.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Platina | Gonzalez-Aguero M.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Platina | Defilippi B.G.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Platina
South African Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

The isolation of high-quality RNA from fruit tissues is often difficult due to the abundance of polysaccharides, phenolics and other metabolites that can negatively affect both the quality and yield of isolated RNA. Here, we describe several modifications to an existing method that can be used to isolate RNA from the pulp of several different fruits that contain large amounts of metabolites. This method, in contrast to other extraction protocols tested, was successfully used to extract large quantities of high-quality total RNA from two developmental stages in all species tested, as assayed by spectrophotometry and electrophoresis on denaturing agarose gels. This RNA was also suitable for use in downstream applications such as reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. The method described here could likely be used for studying gene expression during the development and ripening of a wide variety of fruit tissues, especially in cases where other methods fail to yield suitable RNA. © 2012 South African Association of Botanists.

Manriquez D.A.,AgroFresh | Munoz-Robredo P.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Platina | Gudenschwager O.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Platina | Robledo P.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Platina | Defilippi B.G.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Platina
Postharvest Biology and Technology | Year: 2014

Flavor is one of the most important attributes of fresh fruit for the consumer, and is affected by several factors, including genotype, maturity stage, and environmental conditions. Flavor-related metabolites were characterized in two important cherimoya varieties, cv. Concha Lisa and cv. Bronceada, during fruit ripening. The most important sugars present were glucose, fructose and sucrose, and only fructose and glucose increased during ripening. The most important acids were tartaric, malic and citric acids, and all increased as ripening progressed. Overall aroma profile was mainly determined by esters and terpenes in both varieties. Ester compounds such as ethyl hexanoate, butyl butyrate and hexyl propanoate increased during ripening. The activity of alcohol acyl transferase also increased during fruit ripening concomitant with ester accumulation. Terpenes, such as α and β-pinene, showed a reduction during ripening, whereas others, such as myrcene and limonene, increased. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Ruiz A.,University of Concepción | Mardones C.,University of Concepción | Vergara C.,University of Concepción | Hermosin-Gutierrez I.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2013

Calafate (Berberis microphylla G. Forst) is a Patagonian barberry very rich in anthocyanins and one of the fruits with the highest levels of these polyphenols. Other phenolic compounds have also been described in calafate berries. However, to the best of our knowledge there is no available information on hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. The complexity of hydroxycinnamic acids determination in calafate berries, due to their structure similarities and the interference of high anthocyanin concentration is addressed by means of solid liquid extraction, followed by solid phase extraction clean-up on MCX columns and HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The optimized extraction, clean-up and HPLC separation method allowed the assignation of identity and quantification of 20 hydroxycinnamic acids from calafate fruits. 5-Caffeoylquinic acid was the main compound found in all the studied samples. Other 13 hydroxycinnamoyl quinic acids and 6 caffeic acid esters with aldaric acid derivatives assigned as glucaric acid were also identified. Moreover, the glucaric-based hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives accounted for almost the half of total content of this kind of phenolic compounds. The total concentration of hydroxycinnamic acids derivatives ranged between 0.32±0.00. μmol/g and 8.28±0.01 μmol/g. Effect of ripening and geographical location on hydroxycinnamic acid profiles and concentrations are also evaluated. The methodology allows the determination of hydroxycinnamic acids from calafate despite of the high anthocyanin concentrations, showing a much higher concentration of these acids than other widely consumed berries. Thus suggesting that calafate could be considered a very interesting fruit from the point of view of their nutraceutical composition. However, geographical location and ripening have incidence in levels of studied compounds. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Sepulveda-Chavera G.,University of Tarapacá | Salvatierra-Martinez R.,University of Tarapacá | Bilbao-Apata C.,University of Tarapacá | Sepulveda-Ramirez P.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Platina | And 2 more authors.
Idesia | Year: 2013

Soil avocado with symptoms of chlorosis and defoliation that were associated with Phytophthora cinnamomi in the orchards of two valleys (Azapa and Codpa) in northern Chile were explored, in this soil the EC and pH was measured in the saturation extract. The phytopathogen was successfully isolated using as bait circles of leaves of Eucalyptus globulus, was identified in only one of the eighteen sectors prospected in Azapa Valley (5.6%), while in the valley of Codpa P. cinnamomi was identified in all orchards prospected (100%). Suggesting that in Codpa symptoms in plants are produced by P. cinnamomi, and in the valley of Azapa is rather due to salt toxicity and other soil physicochemical characteristics. The plant pathogen was isolated and inoculated Hass avocado plants, after 30 days affected plants developed symptoms as chlorosis, defoliation, death of branches and tree. The fungus was isolated from inoculated plants and pathogenicity was confirmed. The CO2 assimilation was measured with a LI-COR 6200 in five healthy and five diseased plants obtaining significant differences (p < 0.05) showing that the disease affects photosynthesis.

Pedreschi R.,Wageningen University | Pedreschi R.,Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaíso | Munoz P.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Platina | Robledo P.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Platina | And 12 more authors.
Postharvest Biology and Technology | Year: 2014

The complex physiology of 'Hass' avocado renders its postharvest ripening heterogeneous and unpredictable. Several approaches have previously been undertaken to broaden our understanding of the causes of this postharvest ripening heterogeneity but without much success. In this study, a fruit biopsy methodology was undertaken to sample mesocarp tissue from a series of individual avocado fruit while following individual fruit postharvest ripening characteristics without significantly disturbing their metabolism. Using both targeted and untargeted metabolomics approaches, we analyzed the metabolite profiles of the biopsies in order to get more insight into the biochemical mechanisms underlying 'Hass' avocado ripening heterogeneity. While C7 sugars (mannoheptulose and perseitol), dry matter and total Ca2+ were not correlated with time to reach edible ripeness, untargeted metabolomics profiling of polar and semi-polar compounds (based on GC-MS and LC-MS platforms), revealed several metabolites, mainly amino acids, that were related to ripening heterogeneity. In addition, analysis of fatty acids revealed linoleic acid to be differentially accumulating. In general, slowest ripening avocados had lower amounts of precursors of metabolites involved in key metabolic pathways. Our study indicates that comprehensive metabolomics may provide new markers for avocado ripening stage at harvest, and may give more insight into the complex ripening physiology of this fruit. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Gonzalez-Aguero M.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Platina | Cifuentes-Esquivel N.,Center for Research in Agricultural Genomics | Ibanez-Carrasco F.,Texas A&M University | Gudenschwager O.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Platina | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Cherimoyas (Annona cherimola), like other subtropical/tropical fruits, are susceptible to damage from exposure to temperatures between 0 and 5 °C (chilling injury, CI), which may affect fruit quality. To increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the CI response, a forward suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library was constructed. In this work, we obtained 75 genes that could potentially be involved in the CI response. The CI induced activation of genes that are involved in a range of metabolic pathways, such as primary metabolism, transport, and endomembrane traffic, among others. We also characterized the expression of 12 selected genes in different A. cherimola tissues by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and we confirmed the differential expression of a subset in CI fruits by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The expression of six A. cherimola genes: annexin (AcAnex), UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AcUGP), syntaxin of plants 71 (AcSyp71), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid synthase (AcACS), ubiquitin carrier-like protein (AcUCP), and enolase (AcEnol), was up-regulated after cold storage for 12 days at 0 °C. These results imply that selected genes could be related to the development of internal browning observed in cherimoyas after exposure to CI conditions. The information generated in this study provides new clues that may aid in understanding the cherimoya ripening process. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

PubMed | Agrarian National University, Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Platina and Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaíso
Type: | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2015

Pouteria lucuma is an Andean fruit from pre-Incas times highly appreciated due to its characteristic flavor and taste in its homeland. We characterized the primary (e.g., sugars and organic acids), and secondary (e.g., phenolics and carotenoids) and in vitro antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of Rosalia, Montero and Leiva 1 lucuma biotypes. Significant differences were found in these metabolites and functional properties related to biotype and ripeness stage. Results showed significant amounts of sugars (119.4-344 mg total sugars g(-1)DW) and organic acids (44.4-30.0 mg g(-1)DW) and functional associated compounds such as ascorbic acid (0.35-1.07 mg g(-1)DW), total phenolics (0.7-61.6 mg GAE g(-1)DW) and total carotenoids (0.22-0.50 mg -carotene g(-1)DW). Important in vitro antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties were found and provide the base for the standardization of lucuma harvest and postharvest focused not only on the enhancement of sensory but functional properties.

Martinez J.-P.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Cruz | Martinez J.-P.,Regional Center for Studies of Food for Health | Antunez A.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Platina | Pertuze R.,University of Chile | And 9 more authors.
Experimental Agriculture | Year: 2012

Farmers around the world are concerned about the effects of human-induced salinity on crop yield and quality. Therefore, researchers are actively testing wild relatives of cultivated plants to identify candidates to improve crop performance under salt stress. A study was conducted to understand the effects of salt stress (Sodium chloride, NaCl) on cultivated tomato species (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme L.) and a wild tomato relative (Solanum chilense Dun.) from the Northern part of Chile. Plants were cultivated hydroponically under controlled environmental conditions for 112 days with nutrient solution containing 0 mM (3 dS m-1), 40 mM (6 dS m-1) and 80-mM (9 dS m-1) NaCl. Salt stress reduced the shoot biomass in S. lycopersicum but not in S. chilense. Both species were able to maintain the leaf water content; however, the cultivated S. lycopersicum showed osmotic adjustment, while S. chilense did not. Salt stress reduced the total fruit yield in S. lycopersicum based on a decrease in the mean fruit weight, but it had no impact on the number of fruits per plant. In contrast, salt stress had no significant impact on the fruit yield in S. chilense. Salt stress increased the total soluble solids content in S. lycopersicum and the titratable acidity in S. chilense. It was concluded that S. chilense displays a contrasting behaviour in response to prolonged exposure to moderate salinity compared with S. lycopersicum, and that this related species could be an interesting plant for breeding purposes. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

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