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Martinez J.P.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Cruz | Martinez J.P.,University of Valparaiso | Antunez A.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Platina | Araya H.,University of Chile | And 4 more authors.
Australian Journal of Botany | Year: 2014

The effect of saline stress (NaCl, 40, 80 and 160mmolL-1 of NaCl) on growth, plant water status and leaf antioxidant enzyme activities was investigated in a commercial cultivar of cherry tomato (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme L.) and in a wild-related species collected in a salt-affected area of North Chile (Solanum chilense Dun.). Salt stress was applied in a nutrient solution at the vegetative stage during 40 days. The highest NaCl concentration reduced shoot relative growth, fresh and dry weight and leaf area in the cultivated S. lycopersicum but had less impact on S. chilense. Both species were able to efficiently perform osmotic adjustment but S. chilense also exhibited an increase in leaf succulence. The oxidative stress estimated through malondialdehyde quantification was always higher in the cultivated S. lycopersicum, both in the absence and in the presence of salt. Total superoxide dismutase activity (EC increased in response to the highest dose of NaCl in S. chilense but remained constant in S. lycopersicum. Salinity induced an increase in ascorbate peroxidase (EC in S. chilense but reduced it in S. lycopersicum. It is concluded that S. chilense displays efficient strategies to cope with high NaCl doses and that management of the oxidative status is a key mechanism allowing this species to tolerate salinity. © 2014 CSIRO. Source

Sepulveda-Chavera G.,University of Tarapaca | Salvatierra-Martinez R.,University of Tarapaca | Bilbao-Apata C.,University of Tarapaca | Sepulveda-Ramirez P.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Platina | And 2 more authors.
Idesia | Year: 2013

Soil avocado with symptoms of chlorosis and defoliation that were associated with Phytophthora cinnamomi in the orchards of two valleys (Azapa and Codpa) in northern Chile were explored, in this soil the EC and pH was measured in the saturation extract. The phytopathogen was successfully isolated using as bait circles of leaves of Eucalyptus globulus, was identified in only one of the eighteen sectors prospected in Azapa Valley (5.6%), while in the valley of Codpa P. cinnamomi was identified in all orchards prospected (100%). Suggesting that in Codpa symptoms in plants are produced by P. cinnamomi, and in the valley of Azapa is rather due to salt toxicity and other soil physicochemical characteristics. The plant pathogen was isolated and inoculated Hass avocado plants, after 30 days affected plants developed symptoms as chlorosis, defoliation, death of branches and tree. The fungus was isolated from inoculated plants and pathogenicity was confirmed. The CO2 assimilation was measured with a LI-COR 6200 in five healthy and five diseased plants obtaining significant differences (p < 0.05) showing that the disease affects photosynthesis. Source

Gonzalez-Aguero M.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Platina | Cifuentes-Esquivel N.,Center for Research in Agricultural Genomics | Ibanez-Carrasco F.,Texas A&M University | Gudenschwager O.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Platina | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Cherimoyas (Annona cherimola), like other subtropical/tropical fruits, are susceptible to damage from exposure to temperatures between 0 and 5 °C (chilling injury, CI), which may affect fruit quality. To increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the CI response, a forward suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library was constructed. In this work, we obtained 75 genes that could potentially be involved in the CI response. The CI induced activation of genes that are involved in a range of metabolic pathways, such as primary metabolism, transport, and endomembrane traffic, among others. We also characterized the expression of 12 selected genes in different A. cherimola tissues by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and we confirmed the differential expression of a subset in CI fruits by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The expression of six A. cherimola genes: annexin (AcAnex), UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AcUGP), syntaxin of plants 71 (AcSyp71), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid synthase (AcACS), ubiquitin carrier-like protein (AcUCP), and enolase (AcEnol), was up-regulated after cold storage for 12 days at 0 °C. These results imply that selected genes could be related to the development of internal browning observed in cherimoyas after exposure to CI conditions. The information generated in this study provides new clues that may aid in understanding the cherimoya ripening process. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source

Manriquez D.A.,Agrofresh | Munoz-Robredo P.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Platina | Gudenschwager O.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Platina | Robledo P.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Platina | Defilippi B.G.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Platina
Postharvest Biology and Technology | Year: 2014

Flavor is one of the most important attributes of fresh fruit for the consumer, and is affected by several factors, including genotype, maturity stage, and environmental conditions. Flavor-related metabolites were characterized in two important cherimoya varieties, cv. Concha Lisa and cv. Bronceada, during fruit ripening. The most important sugars present were glucose, fructose and sucrose, and only fructose and glucose increased during ripening. The most important acids were tartaric, malic and citric acids, and all increased as ripening progressed. Overall aroma profile was mainly determined by esters and terpenes in both varieties. Ester compounds such as ethyl hexanoate, butyl butyrate and hexyl propanoate increased during ripening. The activity of alcohol acyl transferase also increased during fruit ripening concomitant with ester accumulation. Terpenes, such as α and β-pinene, showed a reduction during ripening, whereas others, such as myrcene and limonene, increased. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Pedreschi R.,Wageningen University | Pedreschi R.,Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaiso | Hollak S.,Wageningen University | Harkema H.,Wageningen University | And 6 more authors.
South African Journal of Botany | Year: 2016

Persea americana Mill. cv 'Hass' is a subtropical fruit highly appreciated as a rich source of fatty acids mostly of the monounsaturated type. Commonly commercially applied postharvest ripening strategies for the ready to eat market based on high temperature (15 and 20 °C) and external ethylene (0 or 100 ppm applied for 24 h) application did not have a detrimental effect on the fatty acid profile or composition and total amount of oil recovered at edible ripeness. The results of this study have important implications for the fresh fruit and avocado oil industry. The composition of the fatty acid profile in 'Hass' avocados was mostly influenced by growing and environmental conditions. Commercially applied postharvest ripening strategies based on temperature and ethylene did not affect negatively the fatty acid composition of the fruit. © 2015. Source

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