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Lizana X.C.,Austral University of Chile | Avila A.,Austral University of Chile | Tolaba A.,Austral University of Chile | Martinez J.P.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Cruz | Martinez J.P.,University of Valparaíso
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology | Year: 2017

Potato is considered a key crop for food security, mainly in developing countries. Increased temperature in future climate scenarios could be a significant constraint for potato productivity in tropical regions, while favorable for temperate regions. Global warming in the range of moderately high temperatures (15–32 °C) is projected for temperate areas of southern Chile, which is a high potential environment for potato. The present study assessed the impact of moderately high temperatures on yield and physiological traits, during tuber bulking (TB) of two native Chilean varieties and three commercial varieties. Experiments were carried out under field conditions during two growing seasons. Three thermal regimes were applied: (i) ambient temperature (T0), and increased temperature (2.3–5.3 °C) for 20 days (ii) from the beginning to middle of TB (T1) and (iii) from the middle of TB until the beginning of leaf yellowing (T2). Effect of temperature on yield and physiological performance of genotypes were dependent on the timing of heat treatments. T1 increased tuber yield by 11–59%, but T2 did not modify tuber yield. Yield sensitivity was highly dependent on genotype. Harvest index was the most sensitive trait to increase temperature at T1, decreasing in the range of temperatures evaluated without reduction for tuber yield. Increased tuber yield at T1 was associated with higher intercepted radiation between flowering and 50% of leaf brownship, explained in part by elongation of this period and stomatal conductance of leaves. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Gharbi E.,Catholic University of Leuven | Gharbi E.,Tunis el Manar University | Martinez J.-P.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Cruz | Benahmed H.,Tunis el Manar University | And 5 more authors.
Plant Science | Year: 2017

A holistic approach was used to investigate the hormonal profile in relation with osmotic adjustment under salinity in Solanum lycopersicum and its halophyte wild relative Solanum chilense. Plants were subjected to 125 mM NaCl for 7 days. Solanum chilense displayed a contrasting behaviour comparatively to S. lycopersicum, not only for mineral nutrition, but also regarding the modalities of osmotic adjustment and phytohormonal profiling. The extent of osmotic adjustment was higher in S. chilense than in S. lycopersicum. Ions K+ and Na+ were the major contributors of osmotic adjustment in S. chilense, accounting respectively for 47 and 60% of osmotic potential. In contrast the contributions of proline and soluble sugars remained marginal for the two species although salt-induced accumulation of proline was higher in S. lycopersicum than in S. chilense. Both species also differed for their hormonal status under salinity and concentrations of most hormonal compounds were higher in S. chilense than in S. lycopersicum. Interestingly, salicylic acid, ethylene and cytokinins were positively correlated with osmotic potential in S. chilense under salinity while these hormones were negatively correlated with osmotic adjustment in S. lycopersicum. Our results suggested that the capacity to use inorganic ions as osmotica may improve salt resistance in S.chilense and that phytohormones could be involved in this process. © 2017


Vromman D.,Catholic University of Leuven | Martinez J.-P.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Cruz | Lutts S.,Catholic University of Leuven
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2017

Most arsenic in surface soil and water exists primarily in its oxidized form, as arsenate (As(V); AsO4 3-), which is an analog of phosphate (PO4 3-). Arsenate can be taken up by phosphate transporters. Atriplex atacamensis Phil. is native to northern Chile (Atacama Desert), and this species can cope with high As concentrations and low P availability in its natural environment. To determine the impact of P on As accumulation and tolerance in A. atacamensis, the plants were cultivated in a hydroponic system under four treatments: no As(V) addition with 323 µM phosphate (control); 1000 µM As(V) addition with 323 µM phosphate; no As(V) and no phosphate; 1000 µM As(V) addition and no phosphate. Phosphate starvation decreased shoot fresh weight, while As(V) addition reduced stem and root fresh weights. Arsenate addition decreased the P concentrations in both roots and leaves, but to a lesser extent than for P starvation. Phosphorus starvation increased the As concentrations in roots, but decreased it in shoots, which suggests that P deficiency reduced As translocation from roots to shoots. Arsenate addition increased total glutathione, but P deficiency decreased oxidized and reduced glutathione in As(V)-treated plants. Arsenate also induced an increase in S accumulation and nonprotein thiol and ethylene synthesis, and a decrease in K concentrations, effects that were similar for the P-supplied and P-starved plants. In contrast, in As(V)-treated plants, P starvation dramatically decreased total soluble protein content and increased lipid peroxidation, compared to plants supplied with P. Phosphorus nutrition thus appears to be an important component of A. atacamensis response to As toxicity. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.


Pedreschi R.,Wageningen University | Pedreschi R.,Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaíso | Hollak S.,Wageningen University | Harkema H.,Wageningen University | And 6 more authors.
South African Journal of Botany | Year: 2016

Persea americana Mill. cv 'Hass' is a subtropical fruit highly appreciated as a rich source of fatty acids mostly of the monounsaturated type. Commonly commercially applied postharvest ripening strategies for the ready to eat market based on high temperature (15 and 20 °C) and external ethylene (0 or 100 ppm applied for 24 h) application did not have a detrimental effect on the fatty acid profile or composition and total amount of oil recovered at edible ripeness. The results of this study have important implications for the fresh fruit and avocado oil industry. The composition of the fatty acid profile in 'Hass' avocados was mostly influenced by growing and environmental conditions. Commercially applied postharvest ripening strategies based on temperature and ethylene did not affect negatively the fatty acid composition of the fruit. © 2015.


Martinez J.P.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Cruz | Martinez J.P.,University of Valparaíso | Antunez A.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Platina | Araya H.,University of Chile | And 4 more authors.
Australian Journal of Botany | Year: 2014

The effect of saline stress (NaCl, 40, 80 and 160mmolL-1 of NaCl) on growth, plant water status and leaf antioxidant enzyme activities was investigated in a commercial cultivar of cherry tomato (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme L.) and in a wild-related species collected in a salt-affected area of North Chile (Solanum chilense Dun.). Salt stress was applied in a nutrient solution at the vegetative stage during 40 days. The highest NaCl concentration reduced shoot relative growth, fresh and dry weight and leaf area in the cultivated S. lycopersicum but had less impact on S. chilense. Both species were able to efficiently perform osmotic adjustment but S. chilense also exhibited an increase in leaf succulence. The oxidative stress estimated through malondialdehyde quantification was always higher in the cultivated S. lycopersicum, both in the absence and in the presence of salt. Total superoxide dismutase activity (EC 1.15.1.1) increased in response to the highest dose of NaCl in S. chilense but remained constant in S. lycopersicum. Salinity induced an increase in ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11) in S. chilense but reduced it in S. lycopersicum. It is concluded that S. chilense displays efficient strategies to cope with high NaCl doses and that management of the oxidative status is a key mechanism allowing this species to tolerate salinity. © 2014 CSIRO.


Martinez J.-P.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Cruz | Martinez J.-P.,Regional Center for Studies of Food for Health | Antunez A.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Platina | Pertuze R.,University of Chile | And 9 more authors.
Experimental Agriculture | Year: 2012

Farmers around the world are concerned about the effects of human-induced salinity on crop yield and quality. Therefore, researchers are actively testing wild relatives of cultivated plants to identify candidates to improve crop performance under salt stress. A study was conducted to understand the effects of salt stress (Sodium chloride, NaCl) on cultivated tomato species (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme L.) and a wild tomato relative (Solanum chilense Dun.) from the Northern part of Chile. Plants were cultivated hydroponically under controlled environmental conditions for 112 days with nutrient solution containing 0 mM (3 dS m-1), 40 mM (6 dS m-1) and 80-mM (9 dS m-1) NaCl. Salt stress reduced the shoot biomass in S. lycopersicum but not in S. chilense. Both species were able to maintain the leaf water content; however, the cultivated S. lycopersicum showed osmotic adjustment, while S. chilense did not. Salt stress reduced the total fruit yield in S. lycopersicum based on a decrease in the mean fruit weight, but it had no impact on the number of fruits per plant. In contrast, salt stress had no significant impact on the fruit yield in S. chilense. Salt stress increased the total soluble solids content in S. lycopersicum and the titratable acidity in S. chilense. It was concluded that S. chilense displays a contrasting behaviour in response to prolonged exposure to moderate salinity compared with S. lycopersicum, and that this related species could be an interesting plant for breeding purposes. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.


Gharbi E.,Catholic University of Louvain | Gharbi E.,Tunis el Manar University | Martinez J.-P.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Cruz | Benahmed H.,Tunis el Manar University | And 3 more authors.
Physiologia Plantarum | Year: 2016

This study aimed to determine the effects of exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) on the toxic effects of salt in relation to ethylene and polyamine synthesis, and to correlate these traits with the expression of genes involved in ethylene and polyamine metabolism in two tomato species differing in their sensitivity to salt stress, Solanum lycopersicum cv Ailsa Craig and its wild salt-resistant relative Solanum chilense. In S. chilense, treatment with 125 mM NaCl improved plant growth, increased production of ethylene, endogenous salicylic acid and spermine. The production was related to a modification of expression of genes involved in ethylene and polyamine metabolism. In contrast, salinity decreased plant growth in S. lycopersicum without affecting endogenous ethylene, salicylic or polyamine concentrations. Exogenous application of salicylic acid at 0.01 mM enhanced shoot growth in both species and affected ethylene and polyamine production in S. chilense. Concomitant application of NaCl and salicylic acid improved osmotic adjustment, thus suggesting that salt and SA may act in synergy on osmolyte synthesis. However, the beneficial impact of exogenous application of salicylic acid was mitigated by salt stress since NaCl impaired endogenous SA accumulation in the shoot and salicylic acid did not improve plant growth in salt-treated plants. Our results thus revealed that both species respond differently to salinity and that salicylic acid, ethylene and polyamine metabolisms are involved in salt resistance in S. chilense. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society


PubMed | Catholic University of Louvain, University of Liège, Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Cruz and Tunis el Manar University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Physiologia plantarum | Year: 2016

This study aimed to determine the effects of exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) on the toxic effects of salt in relation to ethylene and polyamine synthesis, and to correlate these traits with the expression of genes involved in ethylene and polyamine metabolism in two tomato species differing in their sensitivity to salt stress, Solanum lycopersicum cv Ailsa Craig and its wild salt-resistant relative Solanum chilense. In S. chilense, treatment with 125 mM NaCl improved plant growth, increased production of ethylene, endogenous salicylic acid and spermine. The production was related to a modification of expression of genes involved in ethylene and polyamine metabolism. In contrast, salinity decreased plant growth in S. lycopersicum without affecting endogenous ethylene, salicylic or polyamine concentrations. Exogenous application of salicylic acid at 0.01 mM enhanced shoot growth in both species and affected ethylene and polyamine production in S. chilense. Concomitant application of NaCl and salicylic acid improved osmotic adjustment, thus suggesting that salt and SA may act in synergy on osmolyte synthesis. However, the beneficial impact of exogenous application of salicylic acid was mitigated by salt stress since NaCl impaired endogenous SA accumulation in the shoot and salicylic acid did not improve plant growth in salt-treated plants. Our results thus revealed that both species respond differently to salinity and that salicylic acid, ethylene and polyamine metabolisms are involved in salt resistance in S. chilense.


PubMed | Tunis el Manar University, Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Cruz, Catholic University of Louvain and University of Liège
Type: | Journal: Journal of plant physiology | Year: 2017

Exposure to salinity induces a burst in ethylene synthesis in the wild tomato halophyte plant species Solanum chilense. In order to gain information on the role of ethylene in salt adaptation, plants of Solanum chilense (accession LA4107) and of cultivated glycophyte Solanum lycopersicum (cv. Ailsa Craig) were cultivated for 7days in nutrient solution containing 0 or 125mM NaCl in the presence or absence of the inhibitor of ethylene synthesis (aminovinylglycine (AVG) 2M). Salt-induced ethylene synthesis in S. chilense occurred concomitantly with an increase in stomatal conductance, an efficient osmotic adjustment and the maintenance of carbon isotope discrimination value (

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