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Martinez J.P.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Cruz | Martinez J.P.,University of Valparaiso | Antunez A.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Platina | Araya H.,University of Chile | And 4 more authors.
Australian Journal of Botany

The effect of saline stress (NaCl, 40, 80 and 160mmolL-1 of NaCl) on growth, plant water status and leaf antioxidant enzyme activities was investigated in a commercial cultivar of cherry tomato (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme L.) and in a wild-related species collected in a salt-affected area of North Chile (Solanum chilense Dun.). Salt stress was applied in a nutrient solution at the vegetative stage during 40 days. The highest NaCl concentration reduced shoot relative growth, fresh and dry weight and leaf area in the cultivated S. lycopersicum but had less impact on S. chilense. Both species were able to efficiently perform osmotic adjustment but S. chilense also exhibited an increase in leaf succulence. The oxidative stress estimated through malondialdehyde quantification was always higher in the cultivated S. lycopersicum, both in the absence and in the presence of salt. Total superoxide dismutase activity (EC increased in response to the highest dose of NaCl in S. chilense but remained constant in S. lycopersicum. Salinity induced an increase in ascorbate peroxidase (EC in S. chilense but reduced it in S. lycopersicum. It is concluded that S. chilense displays efficient strategies to cope with high NaCl doses and that management of the oxidative status is a key mechanism allowing this species to tolerate salinity. © 2014 CSIRO. Source

Pedreschi R.,Wageningen University | Pedreschi R.,Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaiso | Hollak S.,Wageningen University | Harkema H.,Wageningen University | And 6 more authors.
South African Journal of Botany

Persea americana Mill. cv 'Hass' is a subtropical fruit highly appreciated as a rich source of fatty acids mostly of the monounsaturated type. Commonly commercially applied postharvest ripening strategies for the ready to eat market based on high temperature (15 and 20 °C) and external ethylene (0 or 100 ppm applied for 24 h) application did not have a detrimental effect on the fatty acid profile or composition and total amount of oil recovered at edible ripeness. The results of this study have important implications for the fresh fruit and avocado oil industry. The composition of the fatty acid profile in 'Hass' avocados was mostly influenced by growing and environmental conditions. Commercially applied postharvest ripening strategies based on temperature and ethylene did not affect negatively the fatty acid composition of the fruit. © 2015. Source

Martinez J.-P.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Cruz | Martinez J.-P.,Regional Center for Studies of Food for Health | Antunez A.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA La Platina | Pertuze R.,University of Chile | And 9 more authors.
Experimental Agriculture

Farmers around the world are concerned about the effects of human-induced salinity on crop yield and quality. Therefore, researchers are actively testing wild relatives of cultivated plants to identify candidates to improve crop performance under salt stress. A study was conducted to understand the effects of salt stress (Sodium chloride, NaCl) on cultivated tomato species (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme L.) and a wild tomato relative (Solanum chilense Dun.) from the Northern part of Chile. Plants were cultivated hydroponically under controlled environmental conditions for 112 days with nutrient solution containing 0 mM (3 dS m-1), 40 mM (6 dS m-1) and 80-mM (9 dS m-1) NaCl. Salt stress reduced the shoot biomass in S. lycopersicum but not in S. chilense. Both species were able to maintain the leaf water content; however, the cultivated S. lycopersicum showed osmotic adjustment, while S. chilense did not. Salt stress reduced the total fruit yield in S. lycopersicum based on a decrease in the mean fruit weight, but it had no impact on the number of fruits per plant. In contrast, salt stress had no significant impact on the fruit yield in S. chilense. Salt stress increased the total soluble solids content in S. lycopersicum and the titratable acidity in S. chilense. It was concluded that S. chilense displays a contrasting behaviour in response to prolonged exposure to moderate salinity compared with S. lycopersicum, and that this related species could be an interesting plant for breeding purposes. © 2012 Cambridge University Press. Source

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