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Bastias A.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA CRI Rayentue | Correa F.,University of Talca | Rojas P.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA CRI Rayentue | Munoz C.,University of Chile | Sagredo B.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA CRI Rayentue
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) is a small dioecious tree native to South America with edible fruit characterized by very high antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin content. To preserve maqui as a genetic resource it is essential to study its genetic diversity. However, the complete genome is unknown and only a few gene sequences are available in databases. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers, which are neutral, co-dominant, reproducible and highly variable, are desirable to support genetic studies in maqui populations. By means of identification and characterization of microsatellite loci from a maqui genotype, using 454 sequencing technology, we develop a set of SSR for this species. Obtaining a total of 165,043 shotgun genome sequences, with an average read length of 387 bases, we covered 64 Mb of the maqui genome. Reads were assembled into 4,832 contigs, while 98,546 reads remained as singletons, generating a total of 103,378 consensus genomic sequences. A total of 24,494 SSR maqui markers were identified. Of them, 15,950 SSR maqui markers were classified as perfects. The most common SSR motifs were dinucleotide (31%), followed by tetranucleotide (26%) and trinucleotide motifs (24%). The motif AG/CT (28.4%) was the most abundant, while the motif AC (89 bp) was the largest. Eleven polymorphic SSRs were selected and used to analyze a population of 40 maqui genotypes. Polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.117 to 0.82, with an average of 0.58. Non-significant groups were observed in the maqui population, showing a panmictic genetic structure. In addition, we also predicted 11150 putative genes and 3 microRNAs (miRNAs) in maqui sequences. This results, including partial sequences of genes, some miRNAs and SSR markers from high throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) of maqui genomic DNA, constitute the first platform to undertake genetic and molecular studies of this important species. © 2016 Bastías et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Almada R.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA CRI Rayentue | Arismendi M.J.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA CRI Rayentue | Arismendi M.J.,University of the Frontier | Pimentel P.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA CRI Rayentue | And 4 more authors.
Tree Genetics and Genomes | Year: 2013

Root hypoxia produced by flooding or over-irrigation limits stone fruit tree development, particularly in orchards established on soils with restricted drainage. To overcome this problem, stone fruit trees are usually grafted on rootstocks (species or hybrid of the Prunus L. genus) with different degrees of tolerance to root hypoxia. However, the molecular base of such variability is largely unknown. In Arabidopsis thaliana (Heynh.), as well as in a number of crops and tree species, hemoglobin (Hb)-like genes stand out among hypoxia-related genes, but no such studies have been done with the Prunus species used as rootstocks. In this study, we analyzed the expression pattern of class 1 non-symbiotic Hb-like (nsHb) and class 3 truncated Hb-like (trHb) genes in Prunus rootstock roots with different responses to this stress. We observed that the putative Prunus nsHb and trHb genes were induced by root hypoxia in all analyzed Prunus genotypes, independently of their tolerance to hypoxia. However, Prunus nsHb and trHb genes had higher expression levels in roots of tolerant rootstocks. Prunus nsHb and trHb genes were also regulated by other abiotic stresses, such as salt stress and low temperatures. Our results suggest that changes in nsHb and trHb expressions could be part of the adaptive mechanisms that have evolved in the Prunus species to survive under hypoxia or other types of environmental stress that commonly challenge stone fruit tree orchards. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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