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Ellena M.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA Carillanca | Masia A.,University of Bologna | Marino G.,University of Bologna
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

The traditional methods of propagation of hazelnut trees used, such as layering, cuttings, rooted suckers of the trees in the orchard, often present a low rate of multiplication and in certain occasions phytopathological problems, depending on the precedence and management of the plant materials. The propagation of hazelnut through micro-propagation method is an alternative technique for this species that presents little rizogenetic capacity, in particular some commercial cultivars with regards to the traditional methods. This study was carried out to determine some protocols for the rooting phase in vitro on hazelnut and the variation of the peroxidase, polifenoloxidase IAA oxidase activity and ethylene production during the rooting phase. In our research, we used explants of 20-25 mm of the cultivar 'Tonda Romana' maintained in proliferation media DKW (Driver and Kuniyuki, 1984), supplemented with (mg/L: BA 1, IBA 0.01, pyridoxine 0.5, myoinositol 100, glicine 2, tiamin 1, nicotinic acid 0.5 and g/L: saccharose 30, agar 7), pH 5.5. In the elongation step, explants elongated on the DKW media without IBA. The rooting (Exp. 1) was performed on DKW media supplemented with IBA (0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/L). During the rooting process the explants were maintained at standard (photoperiod of 16/24 h of light, 30 μE). The best rooting of explants occurred in the treatment with higher level of auxin, IBA (1 mg/L), with 60% of rooting at day 25. Also, the higher IBA concentration significantly influenced the number and length of roots. However, the number of roots is high in treatment with 0.5 mg/L of IBA. Concerning, the ethylene production (Exp. 1), all the treatments of rooting, during the first day show a similar activity and successively the concentration tends to be low until the final of the rooting process in the control, while the curve of ethylene activity was significantly increased by the treatments with 0.5 and 1 mg/L of IBA until day 10. On the other hand, the IAAox activity shows a very complex behavior, with the higher value until day 10 with the dose of 0, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/L of IBA, with statistics of significant differences with regards to the higher dose of auxin (1 mg/L) of IBA. Also, the POD activity presents a complex trend, with a higher enzyme activity at day 21 in treatment with the high concentration of IBA (1 mg/L), while for the control the activity was constant during all the rooting steps. For the PPO activity, the higher values were shown at day 4 in the treatments of 0.5, 0.25 and 0 mg/L of IBA, with significant differences between the treatments, successively the curve declines until day 10 in the samples with 0.25 and 0 mg/L and returns to increase until day 15 with the dose of 0.25 mg/L of IBA and until day 21 with the control (IBA 0 mg/L), while with 0.5 mg/L of IBA, the curve descended from day 10 until the last step of the rooting, while for the higher dose of IBA (1 mg/L) the lowest value was showed, and with a little pick at day 21.

Ungerfeld E.M.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA Carillanca
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2015

Maximizing the flow of metabolic hydrogen ([H]) in the rumen away from CH4 and toward volatile fatty acids (VFA) would increase the efficiency of ruminant production and decrease its environmental impact. The objectives of this meta-analysis were: (i) To quantify shifts in metabolic hydrogen sinks when inhibiting ruminal methanogenesis in vitro; and (ii) To understand the variation in shifts of metabolic hydrogen sinks among experiments and between batch and continuous cultures systems when methanogenesis is inhibited. Batch (28 experiments, N = 193) and continuous (16 experiments, N = 79) culture databases of experiments with at least 50% inhibition in CH4 production were compiled. Inhibiting methanogenesis generally resulted in less fermentation and digestion in most batch culture, but not in most continuous culture, experiments. Inhibiting CH4 production in batch cultures resulted in redirection of metabolic hydrogen toward propionate and H2 but not butyrate. In continuous cultures, there was no overall metabolic hydrogen redirection toward propionate or butyrate, and H2 as a proportion of metabolic hydrogen spared from CH4 production was numerically smaller compared to batch cultures. Dihydrogen accumulation was affected by type of substrate and methanogenesis inhibitor, with highly fermentable substrates resulting in greater redirection of metabolic hydrogen toward H2 when inhibiting methanogenesis, and some oils causing small or no H2 accumulation. In both batch and continuous culture, there was a decrease in metabolic hydrogen recovered as the sum of propionate, butyrate, CH4 and H2 when inhibiting methanogenesis, and it is speculated that as CH4 production decreases metabolic hydrogen could be increasingly incorporated into formate, microbial biomass, and perhaps, reductive acetogenesis in continuous cultures. Energetic benefits of inhibiting methanogenesis depended on the inhibitor and its concentration and on the in vitro system. © 2015 Ungerfeld.

Carvajal A.M.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA Remehue | Huircan P.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA Remehue | Dezamour J.M.,Austral University of Chile | Subiabre I.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA Remehue | And 2 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2016

Milk fat composition is important to consumer health. During the last decade, some fatty acids (FA) have received attention because of their functional and beneficial effects on human health. The milk FA profile is affected by both diet and genetics. Differences in milk fat composition are based on biochemical pathways, and candidate genes have been proposed to explain FA profile variation. Here, the association between DGAT1 K232A, SCD1 A293V, and LEPR T945M markers with milk fat composition in southern Chile was evaluated. We selected five herds of Holstein-Friesian, Jersey, Frisón Negro, Montbeliarde, and Overo Colorado cows (pasture-grazed) that received strategic supplementation with concentrates and conserved forages. We genotyped the SNPs and calculated allele frequencies and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Milk fat composition was determined for individual milk samples over a year, and associations between genotypes and milk composition were studied. The most frequent variants for DGAT1, SCD1, and LEPR polymorphisms were GC/GC, C, and C, respectively. The DGAT1 GC/GC allele was associated with lower milk fat and protein content, lower saturated fatty acid levels, and higher polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), n-3 and n-6 FA, and a linolenic acid to cholesterolemic FA ratios, which implied a healthier FA profile. The SCD1 CC genotype was associated with a low cholesterolemic FA content, a high ratio of linolenic acid to cholesterolemic FA, and lower conjugated-linolenic acid and PUFA content. These results suggest the possible modulation of milk fat profiles, using specific genotypes, to improve the nutritional quality of dairy products. © UNPEC-RP.

Munoz G.,Andres Bello University | Campos F.,Andres Bello University | Salgado D.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA Carillanca | Galdames R.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA Carillanca | And 3 more authors.
Revista Iberoamericana de Micologia | Year: 2016

Background: In Chile, the peony is the most important ornamental flower exported from the country. Gray mould is a phytopathological problem of this crop. This disease is caused by Botrytis cinerea and Botrytis paeoniae. Aims: We carried out the first survey of Botrytis species associated with peony gray mould in Southern Chile to estimate the diversity of these pathogens. Methods: Diseased peony leaves were collected from seven locations in Southern Chile covering a distance of 300 km. The Botrytis isolates obtained were studied by morphological and molecular methods. Finally, a PCR assay using primers based on the necrosis and ethylene-inducing protein gene (nep1) was used to specifically identify B. paeoniae. Results: Seventeen isolates belonging to Botrytis genus were obtained, and all of them were pathogenic to peonies when inoculated in plants grown in a greenhouse. Morphological analyses showed that four isolates shared common characteristics, which distinguish them from the rest. Homology and phylogenetic analysis of G3PDH, as well as determination of the Bc-hch allele, allowed us to identify 12 isolates as B. cinerea, 4 as B. paeoniae and one isolate as Botrytis pseudocinerea. The PCR assay was found to be specific to B. paeoniae, amplifying a single band of 470 bp. Conclusions: Three Botrytis species involved in peony gray mould disease are present in Chile. This is the first time that both B. paeoniae and B. pseudocinerea have been reported to be present in the country and also that they affect peonies. Finally, to our knowledge, the PCR based method herein described is the first of its kind to be used to identify B. paeoniae. © 2014 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología.

Ellena M.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA Carillanca | Sandoval P.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA Carillanca | Gonzalez A.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA Carillanca | Jequier J.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA Carillanca | Contreras M.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA Carillanca
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

During the period 2010-2011, a research was carried to determine differences in nut and kernel quality characteristics and variation in nut and kernel productive parameters: nut weight, kernel weight in hazelnut orchards of 'Chilean Barcelona' in Vilcún (1), Gorbea (2), in Araucanía region and Trumao (1) province of Osorno, Los Lagos region. The samples were selected at random from 4 orchards. It was determined that the nut weight, nut length, nut width, nut thickness, kernel weight, kernel, kernel length, kernel width, kernel ratio of this material were: Vilcún (3.58 g, 23.8 mm, 18.20 mm, 1.46 g, 14.72 mm, 16.70 mm, 38.1%), Gorbea (1) (3.59 g, 21.61 mm, 18.37 mm, 1.47 g, 16.62 mm, 15.30 mm, 39.5%), Gorbea (2) (3.89 g, 22.90 mm, 18.53 mm, 1.45 g, 16.96 mm, 15.40 mm, 34.8%) and Osorno (3.07 g, 22.08 mm, 18.20 mm, 1.33 g, 15.18 mm, 15.89 mm, 40.2%), respectively. Additionally, other nut and kernel characteristics were evaluated: blanks, twins, shriveled kernel, mold with the following results: Vilcún 28%, 0%, 7.0%, 3.0%; Gorbea (1) 8.0%, 4.0%, 3.0%, 0.1%; Gorbea (2) 9.0%, 3.0%, 3.0%, 0%; and Osorno 20%, 2.0%, 7.0%, 1.0%, respectively. As a result of this study, it was determined that there were differences of some nut characteristics within 'Chilean Barcelona' hazelnut cultivated in 4 diverse areas of plantation in the south of the country. However, the low nut and kernel weight was obtained in Osorno area and the highest kernel percentage also was obtained in this zone.

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