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Ramirez-Retamal J.,Austral University of Chile | Morales R.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2014

This paper reviews two factors (breed and feed) affecting the carcass and meat quality of sheep. The quality of livestock products has acquired greater importance from the distinct perspectives of the different participants in the agricultural food chain. Consumers, producers and the industry give different levels of importance to the parameters of meat and carcass quality. Nevertheless, all the participants in the meat production chain must ensure quality to improve their competitiveness. The quality of the carcass and meat can be influenced by different factors such as breed and type of feed. The breed can influence weight, yields, and the conformation of the carcass, among other variables, as well as the pH level and the fatty acid composition of the meat, whereas the feed mainly affects carcass conformation and several physicochemical and organoleptic parameters of meat quality such as proximal composition, the fatty acid profile, tenderness and color. Consequently, the effects of breed and feed type should be considered to obtain a quality product that satisfies consumer demand. Source

Hirzel J.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA | Rodriguez F.,University of Bio Bio
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2013

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the essential foods of the human diet; advances in agronomic crop management can improve productivity and profitability as well as reduce adverse environmental impacts. Nitrogen rates in Chile are generally based on crop yield without considering other agronomic factors. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of increasing N rates on plant nutrient composition and N apparent recovery in rice cultivated in five different locations in Chile. The five sites located in central Chile belong to one of the following soil orders: Inceptisol, Alfisol, and Vertisol; they were cropped in field conditions with 'Zafiro-INIA' rice fertilized with 0, 80, and 160 kg N ha-1. Whole-plant total DM, macronutrient composition, and N apparent recovery efficiency (NARE) were determined at grain harvest. Results indicate that all evaluated parameters, with the exception of K concentration, were affected by the soil used. Nitrogen rates only affected total DM production and P, K, and Mg concentrations in plants. Phosphorus and K response decreased when N was added to some soils, which is associated with its chemical properties. Magnesium concentration exhibited an erratic effect, but it was not affected by the N rate in most soils. Nitrogen apparent recovery efficiency was not affected by the N rate and accounted for approximately 49% and 41% for 80 and 160 kg N ha-1, respectively. Macronutrient composition was 5.1-7.7 g N, 1.3-1.8 g P, 5.4-10.8 g K, 1.68-2.57 g Ca, and 0.81-1.45 g Mg kg-1 of total DM. Source

Herrera G.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2013

Sharka disease, which is caused by Plum pox virus (PPV), is one of the most serious diseases affecting stone fruit trees around the world. Identified in Bulgaria in 1931, it was restricted to the European continent until 1992 when the virus was identified in Chile. It was subsequently verified in the USA, Canada, and Argentina. After 20 years since first detecting PPV in Chile, it seems clear that the disease cannot be eradicated in spite of various measures. Considering the seriousness of this problem for the domestic industry, a series of studies have been conducted to determine the distribution and degree of transmission of the disease, its biological and molecular characterization and epidemiological aspects, etc. The available information has allowed national phytosanitary control agencies to take steps to decrease the effects of the virus. However, there is a lack of data with respect to epidemiological factors for a more accurate understanding of the performance of the virus under Chilean conditions. Source

Morales R.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA | Aguiar A.P.S.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA | Subiabre I.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA | Realini C.E.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2013

Beef acceptability and consumer expectations generated with production systems and beef marbling were evaluated in two major Chilean cities. A panel of 204 consumers from Osorno and Santiago rated beef acceptability from four treatments (low or high marbling. ×. grazing or feedlot) in a blind condition, and then with information about marbling and production systems. In addition, consumer expectations induced by the information were evaluated. Three groups of consumers, 'lean beef lovers' (25.5%), 'high expectation consumers' (53.4%) and 'grass-fed beef lovers' (21.1%), were identified based on their expected acceptability. Information about the marbling level and production systems generated positive expectations and increased acceptability of beef with low marbling levels and beef from grazing animals. Results from this study have important implications for the development of beef marketing strategies in the Chilean market. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Inostroza L.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA | Acuna H.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA
Plant Breeding | Year: 2010

Water use efficiency (WUE) of nine naturalized white clover (Trifolium repens L.) populations was evaluated to select parental genotypes for future breeding programmes and to identify associated physiological traits that could be used as selection criteria. A greenhouse experiment was carried out during the spring of 2007 in Chillán, Chile (36°p03'S, 72°07'W). The nine naturalized populations plus two controls were planted in pots containing soil as substrate. The plants were grown under two soil water treatments: with water stress (-1 MPa) and without water stress (-0.01 MPa). The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Transpirated water (T) was recorded daily by weighing the pots, shoot DM (leaves + petioles + stolons) production was measured and WUE was calculated (shoot DM/T). Stomatal conductance (gs), chlorophyll content, relative water content, leaf 13C isotopic discrimination, canopy temperature and stolon water potential were also evaluated. The WUE varied significantly (P = 0.05) among populations and increased under drought conditions because of gs reduction. A high WUE was associated with populations that had a low leaf area DM investment and high stolon DM investment. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

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