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Ceccobelli S.,University of Padua | Ceccobelli S.,University of Perugia | Di Lorenzo P.,University of Perugia | Lancioni H.,University of Perugia | And 15 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2015

The genetic diversities and relationships among 16 local breeds of chicken originating from five countries (Italy, Spain, Serbia, Albania and Republic of Malta) within the Mediterranean basin were assessed by sequencing part of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region and by genotyping individuals at 27 autosomal microsatellite loci. The aim was to study the microevolution of chicken on the northern shores of the Mediterranean and to determine their present genetic status. A 506bp fragment of the mtDNA control region was sequenced in 160 individual DNA samples. The mtDNA sequence polymorphisms nomenclature that is normally used in these studies suggests that the Mediterranean chicken breeds under investigation are related to haplogroup E. A total of 465 blood samples were collected and utilised for microsatellite analysis. Six breeds (Ancona, Livornese Bianca-Italy; Pita Pinta Asturiana, Gallina de Sobrarbe-Spain; Albanian population-Albania; and the Maltese Black-Malta) showed significant high levels of inbreeding. About 22% of the total genetic variation observed was due to variability between populations. STRUCTURE analysis confirmed the breed variability result (FST=0.22) also observed in the Neighbor-Net dendrogram. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source


Lacasa C.M.,Biotecnologia y Proteccion de Cultivos | Martinez V.,Biotecnologia y Proteccion de Cultivos | Hernandez A.,Biotecnologia y Proteccion de Cultivos | Ros C.,Biotecnologia y Proteccion de Cultivos | And 5 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2015

Phytophthora capsici and Phytophthora nicotianae are the main soil-borne pathogens of greenhouse sweet pepper in Southeast (Murcia) and Pnicotianae of open field paprika pepper crops in West (Extremadura) of SpainBoth oomycete cause plant root rotThe effects of green manure amendment (Brassica carinata, Brassica nigra, Sinapis alba, non-amended as control), transparent plastic tarp (non-tarped=biofumigation, tarped=biosolarization) and depth (15cm, 30cm) were assessed for the survival of Pcapsici oospores and Pnicotianae chlamydospores in two consecutive yearsIn Murcia, biosolarization for six weeks significantly reduced the viability of oospores (values for the two soil depths ranged from 4.0-12.2% viables in biosolarized soil to 21.2-26.0% in non-treated soil in 2010 and from 6.9-31.1% to 52.4-54.9% in 2011) and the infectivity of oospores (values for the two soil depths and the two years ranged from 0.0-11.1% of diseased plants in biosolarized soil to 8.3-44.4% in non-treated soil) and chlamydospores (0.0% to 0.0-11.1%)The reduction of inoculum viability was greater with Salba and Bnigra (6.6 and 5.7% of viable oospores) than with Bcarinata (18.9%) and higher than in the non-treated soil (21.2%)Despite the low soil temperatures in Extremadura (15-29°C), Salba further reduced chlamydospore infectivity when compared to Bnigra or non-amended soil in the second year (29.2, 52.1 and 45.9% of diseased plants respectively)Biosolarization with brassicas can be recognized as an effective method to reduce Phytophthora survival in soils of greenhouse pepper crops of Murcia and with better effects on infectivity of inoculum of Pnicotianae (0.0% diseased plants) than on Pcapsici (0.0-11.1% diseased plants)Conversely, the results in Extremadura were not sufficiently consistent in the two year experiment thus, this procedure cannot be recommended for Phytophthora control in Extremadura open field. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.. Source


Morales-Rodriguez C.,Institute Investigaciones Agrarias Finca la Orden Valdesequera | Palo C.,Institute Investigaciones Agrarias Finca la Orden Valdesequera | Palo E.,Institute Investigaciones Agrarias Finca la Orden Valdesequera | Rodriguez-Molina M.C.,Institute Investigaciones Agrarias Finca la Orden Valdesequera
Plant Disease | Year: 2014

Sensitivity to mefenoxam, fresh Brassicaceae tissues, and Brassica pellets was evaluated in several isolates of Phytophthora nicotianae recovered from pepper and tomato plants. The isolates of P. nicotianae studied were classified as sensitive to mefenoxam, showing great variability among isolates in the 50 and 90% effective concentrations (EC50 and EC90, respectively). Sensitivity differentiated isolates from the two hosts of origin, being isolates from tomato plants more resistant to fungicide than those from pepper plants. This differentiation also occurred in the case of fresh Brassicaceae tissues assay. The most effective biofumigant in inhibiting mycelial growth of P. nicotianae isolates was Brassica nigra. The effectiveness of B. carinata, Sinapis alba, and B. oleracea varied depending on the dose. Isolates differed in susceptibility to compounds released by the Brassica pellets and then in the EC50 and EC90. No significant difference was found between the isolates depending on the host of origin. Greenhouse tests demonstrated the effectiveness of treatments with mefenoxam and with Brassica pellets to control P. nicotianae in pepper plants. Mefenoxam application could be a solution to the disease caused by P. nicotianae in tomato and pepper crops in this region but its use could increase resistance in populations. Biofumigation is a promising technique which can be further developed to form part of integrated pest management strategies. © 2014 The American Phytopathological Society. Source


Hortigon-Vinagre M.P.,University of Extremadura | Blanco J.,Institute Investigaciones Agrarias Finca la Orden Valdesequera | Ruiz T.,University of Extremadura | Henao F.,University of Extremadura
Planta Medica | Year: 2014

An interdisciplinary experimental investigation on the antioxidant activity of Thymbra capitata essential oil was made. This plant is a Mediterranean culinary herb, whose essential oil antioxidant power has recently been demonstrated in vitro as one of the highest in nature. We tested if this in vitro antioxidant capacity was reproducible on biological systems using as model system primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes treated with the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. The composition and the in vitro antioxidant activity of the T. capitata essential oil were also assessed. Cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, and reactive oxygen species level were measured in cells treated with pathophysiologic doses of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (< 10 μM) or vehicle after being pre-incubated with small concentrations of the T. capitata essential oil, and the ability of small doses (< 40 ppm) to prevent the death of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes proved very remarkable. Long-term pre-incubation (12 h) with 20 ppm prevented 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-induced cell death and avoided mitochondrial membrane potential loss and reactive oxygen species generation caused by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. A deleterious effect was shown at doses higher than 40 ppm. The results of this study pave the way to further analysis in animal models to achieve a deeper understanding of the in vivo antioxidant power of T. capitata essential oil. Source


Sanchez N.,University of Extremadura | Sanchez R.,Institute Investigaciones Agrarias Finca la Orden Valdesequera | Encinar J.M.,University of Extremadura | Gonzalez J.F.,University of Extremadura | Martinez G.,University of Extremadura
Fuel | Year: 2015

Biodiesel production provides an alternative non-fossil fuel without the need to redesign current direct injection engine technology. In this work biodiesel production from castor oil was analyzed studying all of the main variables of the process. Experimental design was used to evaluate the influence of catalyst concentration, methanol:oil molar ratio, reaction temperature and reaction time in the methyl ester content reached by castor oil transesterification. Results were analyzed by Response Surface Methodology and a quadratic polynomial model was achieved. The model fitted properly the data, as was shown by the validation experiments. The most influential variables were catalyst concentration and methanol:oil molar ratio and the optimum conditions were 0.064 mol L-1 of CH3OK, 18.8:1 as methanol:oil molar ratio, 45 °C and 10 min of reaction. In these conditions, 97 wt% methyl ester content biodiesel was achieved. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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