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Chillán, Chile

Baay-Guzman C.J.,Hospital Infantil de Mexico | Baay-Guzman C.J.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Bebenek I.G.,University of California at Los Angeles | Bebenek I.G.,ChemRisk LLC | And 10 more authors.
Respiratory Research

Background: The pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammation in asthmatic patients is complex and characterized by cellular infiltrates and activity of many cytokines and chemokines. Both the transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and chemokine CCL2 have been shown to play pivotal roles in allergic airway inflammation. The interrelationship between these two factors is not known. We hypothesized that the expression of HIF-1 and CCL2 may be correlated and that the expression of CCL2 may be under the regulation of HIF-1. Several lines of evidence are presented to support this hypothesis. Methods: The effects of treating wild-type OVA (ovalbumin)-sensitized/challenged mice with ethyl-3, 4-dihydroxybenzoate (EDHB), which upregulate HIF, on CCL2 expression, were determined. Mice conditionally knocked out for HIF-1ß was examined for their ability to mount an allergic inflammatory response and CCL2 expression in the lung after intratracheal exposure to ovalbumin. The association of HIF-1a and CCL2 levels was also measured in endobronchial biopsies and bronchial fluid of asthma patients after challenge. Results: We show that both HIF-1a and CCL2 were upregulated during an OVA (ovalbumin)-induced allergic response in mice. The levels of HIF-1a and CCL2 were significantly increased following treatment with a pharmacological agent which upregulates HIF-1a, ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (EDHB). In contrast, the expression levels of HIF-1a and CCL2 were decreased in the lungs of mice that have been conditionally knocked out for ARNT (HIF-1ß) following sensitization with OVA when compared to levels in wild type mice. In asthma patients, the levels of HIF-1a and CCL2 increased after challenge with the allergen. Conclusions: These data suggest that CCL2 expression is regulated, in part, by HIF-1 in the lung. These findings also demonstrate that both CCL2 and HIF-1 are implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammation. © 2012 Baay-Guzman et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Torres C.A.,University of Talca | Sanchez-Contreras J.,University of Talca | Hernandez O.,University of Talca | Leon L.F.,Institute Investigaciones
Acta Horticulturae

Flesh browning (FB), a postharvest physiological disorder, has important economic implications for apple growers and packers. This disorder has hindered long-term storage of 'Cripps Pink' apples in Chile, challenging its commercialization worldwide. In order to assess the ability of Vis/NIR spectral information to non-destructively predict the appearance of FB postharvest, fruit from 16 orchards of different growing areas in Chile were evaluated after 180 days in RA storage (0-1°C, 95% RH). Maturity indices and FB incidence were recorded at each time point. Spectral Vis/NIR measurements were performed using a Stellar Net Inc. spectrophotometer (450-1100 nm). Two measurements on the skin of each fruit were taken at each evaluation time. Spectral dataset was pre-processed using the Savinsky-Golay smoothing treatment (45 points), multiple scattering corrections, and filtering through the external parameter orthogonalization (EPO). Principal component analysis and partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) were applied (Toolbox 7.5, Eigenvector, USA). The PCA showed a significant cluster separation for apples with and without FB from the Vis-NIR skin spectral data, but only for samples with high (>80%; M2, M3, M9) and low (0-10%; M1, M5, M14) FB incidences. Variability on this dataset was represented by two components with 56.8 and 22.7% of total variance. On the other hand, PLS-DA separated the same categories (with and without FB) with sensitivity and specificity indexes for cross validation of 0.82 and 0.87, respectively. Three wavelength bands (391.5-441.5, 541.5-591.5 and 641.5-691.5 nm) were mostly responsible for total FB discrimination. Similar results were found for diffuse FB discrimination in low (0%; M8, M14, M16) and high (>70%; M9, M10, M12) incidence orchards, but in this case only one important wavelength band was responsible for discrimination (697.5-747.5 nm). Source

Gancedo C.,Institute Investigaciones
IUBMB life

Biochemistry in Spain owes much to the figure of Alberto Sols. In words of Nobel Prize winner Severo Ochoa: "He has been the first scientist to establish successfully biochemistry in Spain." His intellectual rigour, care in experimental design, emphasis on quality, and attention to the presentation of results permeated far beyond his inner circle to the then fledging Spanish biochemical community. It would be difficult to find some Spanish biochemist of the generation that now starts to retire who has not been influenced in a way or another by the work of Sols. However, it is also likely that the new generations of biochemists and molecular biologists in the country ignore who was Sols and what their field owns to him. The following lines try to highlight some key points of his scientific biography, the circumstances in which they took place and the state of the corresponding research area at that moment. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Bressani R.,University of the Valley of Guatemala | Bressani R.,Institute Investigaciones
Food and Nutrition Bulletin

This article describes the efforts of the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP) to develop a relatively low-cost vegetable protein mixture suitable as a complementary food for infants and young children. As it turned out, the resulting product became popular with older children and adults, and its superior nutritional benefits were widely recognized by the population. This effort led to broader studies by INCAP of the nutritional quality of vegetable protein mixtures, including raw materials, processing to convert them into human-grade products, product formulation, and commercialization. © 2010, The United Nations University. Source

Reveiz L.,Public Policies and Research | Bonfill X.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Glujovsky D.,Institute for Clinical Effectiveness and Health Policy IECS | Pinzon C.E.,Institute Investigaciones | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Epidemiology

Objective: To determine the prevalence of trial registration in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in 2010 (PUBMED/LILACS) from Latin America and the Caribbean's (LAC) and to compare methodological characteristics between registered and nonregistered RCTs. Study Design and Setting: A search for detecting RCTs in which at least the first/contact author had a LAC's affiliation was made. We determined if RCTs were registered in the International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP). Data were independently extracted by two authors. The risk of bias (RoB) was assessed in all registered RCTs (n = 89) and in a sample of nonregistered RCTs (n = 237). Results: The search identified 1,695 references; 526 RCTs from 19 countries were included. 16.9% (89/526) of RCTs were registered in the ICTRP; however, only 21 (4.0%) were prospectively registered. A significant difference was found in the overall assessment of the RoB between registered and nonregistered RCTs. Overall, registered RCTs were multinational, had larger sample size and longer follow-up, and reported more frequently information on funding, conflict of interests, and ethic issues. No significant differences were found when analyzing prospectively registered RCTs. Conclusion: This study shows that trial registration rates are still low in LAC and the quality of reporting needs to be improved. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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