Chillán, Chile
Chillán, Chile

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Baay-Guzman C.J.,Hospital Infantil Of Mexico | Baay-Guzman C.J.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Bebenek I.G.,University of California at Los Angeles | Bebenek I.G.,ChemRisk LLC | And 10 more authors.
Respiratory Research | Year: 2012

Background: The pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammation in asthmatic patients is complex and characterized by cellular infiltrates and activity of many cytokines and chemokines. Both the transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and chemokine CCL2 have been shown to play pivotal roles in allergic airway inflammation. The interrelationship between these two factors is not known. We hypothesized that the expression of HIF-1 and CCL2 may be correlated and that the expression of CCL2 may be under the regulation of HIF-1. Several lines of evidence are presented to support this hypothesis. Methods: The effects of treating wild-type OVA (ovalbumin)-sensitized/challenged mice with ethyl-3, 4-dihydroxybenzoate (EDHB), which upregulate HIF, on CCL2 expression, were determined. Mice conditionally knocked out for HIF-1ß was examined for their ability to mount an allergic inflammatory response and CCL2 expression in the lung after intratracheal exposure to ovalbumin. The association of HIF-1a and CCL2 levels was also measured in endobronchial biopsies and bronchial fluid of asthma patients after challenge. Results: We show that both HIF-1a and CCL2 were upregulated during an OVA (ovalbumin)-induced allergic response in mice. The levels of HIF-1a and CCL2 were significantly increased following treatment with a pharmacological agent which upregulates HIF-1a, ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (EDHB). In contrast, the expression levels of HIF-1a and CCL2 were decreased in the lungs of mice that have been conditionally knocked out for ARNT (HIF-1ß) following sensitization with OVA when compared to levels in wild type mice. In asthma patients, the levels of HIF-1a and CCL2 increased after challenge with the allergen. Conclusions: These data suggest that CCL2 expression is regulated, in part, by HIF-1 in the lung. These findings also demonstrate that both CCL2 and HIF-1 are implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammation. © 2012 Baay-Guzman et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Reveiz L.,Public Policies and Research | Bonfill X.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Glujovsky D.,Institute for Clinical Effectiveness and Health Policy IECS | Pinzon C.E.,Institute Investigaciones | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Epidemiology | Year: 2012

Objective: To determine the prevalence of trial registration in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in 2010 (PUBMED/LILACS) from Latin America and the Caribbean's (LAC) and to compare methodological characteristics between registered and nonregistered RCTs. Study Design and Setting: A search for detecting RCTs in which at least the first/contact author had a LAC's affiliation was made. We determined if RCTs were registered in the International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP). Data were independently extracted by two authors. The risk of bias (RoB) was assessed in all registered RCTs (n = 89) and in a sample of nonregistered RCTs (n = 237). Results: The search identified 1,695 references; 526 RCTs from 19 countries were included. 16.9% (89/526) of RCTs were registered in the ICTRP; however, only 21 (4.0%) were prospectively registered. A significant difference was found in the overall assessment of the RoB between registered and nonregistered RCTs. Overall, registered RCTs were multinational, had larger sample size and longer follow-up, and reported more frequently information on funding, conflict of interests, and ethic issues. No significant differences were found when analyzing prospectively registered RCTs. Conclusion: This study shows that trial registration rates are still low in LAC and the quality of reporting needs to be improved. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Reveiz L.,Health Systems Based on Primary Health Care | Sangalang S.,Health Systems Based on Primary Health Care | Glujovsky D.,Institute for Clinical Effectiveness and Health Policy IECS | Pinzon C.E.,Institute Investigaciones | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Introduction: Few studies have assessed the nature and quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Methods and Findings: The aims of this systematic review are to evaluate the characteristics (including the risk of bias assessment) of RCT conducted in LAC according to funding source. A review of RCTs published in 2010 in which the author's affiliation was from LAC was performed in PubMed and LILACS. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. The primary outcomes were risk of bias assessment and funding source. A total of 1,695 references were found in PubMed and LILACS databases, of which 526 were RCTs (N = 73.513 participants). English was the dominant publication language (93%) and most of the RCTs were published in non-LAC journals (84.2%). Only five of the 19 identified countries accounted for nearly 95% of all RCTs conducted in the region (Brazil 70.9%, Mexico 10.1%, Argentina 5.9%, Colombia 3.8%, and Chile 3.4%). Few RCTs covered priority areas related with Millennium Development Goals like maternal health (6.7%) or high priority infectious diseases (3.8%). Regarding children, 3.6% and 0.4% RCT evaluated nutrition and diarrhea interventions respectively but none pneumonia. As a comparison, aesthetic and sport related interventions account for 4.6% of all trials. A random sample of RCTs (n = 358) was assessed for funding source: exclusively public (33.8%); private (e.g. pharmaceutical company) (15.3%); other (e.g. mixed, NGO) (15.1%); no funding (35.8%). Overall assessments for risk of bias showed no statistically significant differences between RCTs and type of funding source. Statistically significant differences favoring private and others type of funding was found when assessing trial registration and conflict of interest reporting. Conclusion: Findings of this study could be used to provide more direction for future research to facilitate innovation, improve health outcomes or address priority health problems. © 2013 Reveiz et al.


PubMed | Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Vanderbilt University, Institute Investigaciones, Acharya Nagarjuna University and University of Panamá
Type: | Journal: Journal of ethnopharmacology | Year: 2016

Among amphibians, 15 of the 47 species reported to be used in traditional medicines belong to the family Bufonidae, which demonstrates their potential in pharmacological and natural products research. For example, Asian and American tribes use the skin and the parotoid gland secretions of some common toads in the treatment of hemorrhages, bites and stings from venomous animals, skin and stomach disorders, as well as several types of cancers.In addition to reviewing the occurrence of chemical constituents present in the family Bufonidae, the cytotoxic and biomedical potential of the active compounds produced by different taxa are presented.Available information on bioactive compounds isolated from species of the family Bufonidae was obtained from ACS Publications, Google, Google Scholar, Pubmed, Sciendirect and Springer. Papers written in Chinese, English, German and Spanish were considered.Recent reports show more than 30 % of amphibians are in decline and some of bufonid species are considered to be extinct. For centuries, bufonids have been used as traditional folk remedies to treat allergies, inflammation, cancer, infections and other ailments, highlighting their importance as a prolific source for novel drugs and therapies. Toxins and bioactive chemical constituents from skin and parotid gland secretions of bufonid species can be grouped in five families, the guanidine alkaloids isolated and characterized from Atelopus, the lipophilic alkaloids isolated from Melanophryniscus, the indole alkaloids and bufadienolides known to be synthesized by species of bufonids, and peptides and proteins isolated from the skin and gastrointestinal extracts of some common toads. Overall, the bioactive secretions of this family of anurans may have antimicrobial, protease inhibitor and anticancer properties, as well as being active at the neuromuscular level.In this article, the traditional uses, toxicity and pharmacological potential of chemical compounds from bufonids have been summarized. In spite of being reported to be used to treat several diseases, neither extracts nor metabolites from bufonids have been tested in such illness like acne, osteoporosis, arthritis and other illnesses. However, the cytotoxicity of these metabolites needs to be evaluated on adequate animal models due to the limited conditions of in vitro assays. Novel qualitative and quantitative tools based on MS spectrometry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy is now available to study the complex secretions of bufonids.


Ocampo-Trujillo A.,Hospital Universitario Del Valle | Ocampo-Trujillo A.,Centro Medico Imbanaco | Carbonell-Gonzalez J.,Hospital Universitario Del Valle | Martinez-Blanco A.,Hospital Universitario Del Valle | And 4 more authors.
Actas Urologicas Espanolas | Year: 2014

Objective To evaluate the efficacy of preoperative pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) on histomorphometry, muscle function, urinary continence and quality of life of patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP). Material and methods A prospective intervention clinical study was designed in 16 patients with indication of RP who were randomized into two groups. The Control Group received routine pre-surgical education (hygienic-dietary measures). The intervention group received a training session with supervised PFMT, three times a day, for four weeks, 30 days before the PR. Muscle function of the external urethral sphincter, contraction pressure of the levator ani, urinary continence and quality of life related to health (HRQoL) were evaluated before and after the intervention. At the end of the intervention and day of the surgery, samples of residual muscle tissue were obtained from the external sphincter muscle of the urethra for histomorphometric analysis. Results After the intervention, those participants who carried out PFMT showed an increase in the cross-sectional area of the muscle fibers of the external urethral sphincter (1,313 ± 1,075 μm2 vs. 1,056 ±844 μm2, P =.03) and higher pressure contraction of the levator ani (F = 9.188; P =.010). After catheter removal, 62% of patients in the experimental group and 37% in the control group showed no incontinence. After removal of the catheter, 75% of the experimental group did not require any pad compared to 25% in the control group (p=NS). There were no significant differences between the two groups in any of the HRQoL domains studied. Conclusions Pre-surgical PFMT in patients with RP indication induces changes in the histology and function of the pelvic floor muscles, without changes in urogenital function and HRQoL. These results provide new evidence regarding the benefit of PFMT in preventing RP associated complications. © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.


Vacca C.,National University of Colombia | Vargas C.,Fundacion Ifarma | Canas M.,Fundacion Femeba | Reveiz L.,Institute Investigaciones
Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica/Pan American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2011

Objective. To analyze differing regulations regarding drug promotion, and the extent of compliance as seen in samples of advertising directed to the public in Argentina, Colombia, Ecuador, Nicaragua, and Peru. Methods. A total of 683 pieces of promotional material on display in health facilities, pharmacies, and on the street were collected, 132 of which were randomly selected for analysis. The regulations governing pharmaceutical advertising, taken from official websites and interviews with regulatory officials and Ministry of Health staff in the five countries covered, were reviewed, along with their adherence to the ethical criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO). The contents of the materials in the sample were evaluated to determine their degree of compliance with national regulations and WHO recommendations on drug promotion. Results. The countries have regulations incorporating WHO ethical criteria. Over 80% of the material analyzed included the indications for the drug, while over 70% omitted information on adverse effects. Fifty percent of the advertisements for overthe-counter (OTC) drugs on display in pharmacies listed indications not approved by the relevant health authority. In advertising in pharmacies, the risks from inadequate information were not found to differ significantly for OTC or prescription medications. Compared with materials provided in health facilities, the relative risk of the absence of information on dosage in the material distributed in pharmacies was 2.08 (confidence interval 95% 1.32-3.39). Conclusions. Although regulations on drug promotion and advertising in the five countries studied generally incorporate the WHO recommendations, promotional materials often fail to reflect the fact. © 2011 Organización Panamericana de la Salud.


Vacca C.P.,National University of Colombia | Nino C.Y.,National University of Colombia | Reveiz L.,Institute Investigaciones
Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica/Pan American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2011

Objective. Describe the implementation status of a regulation prohibiting antibiotic sales without a medical prescription in pharmacies of Bogotá, Colombia. Methods. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using the simulated purchase technique in Bogotá pharmacies (drugstores). The sample of 263 pharmacies was calculated by stratification (chain pharmacies and independent pharmacies) with 5% accuracy and a 2% correction factor. Simple randomization was assigned in each stratum. Results. Out of the total pharmacies studied, 80.3% did not comply with the regulation established for prescription sales of antibiotics. In 20.1% of the cases, the dispenser asked about the patient's age, symptoms, or both age and symptoms in order to offer other drugs or change the antibiotic. There were no inquiries about a medical history of allergy to antibiotics. In cases in which there was the intention to sell antibiotics, the generic format was most commonly offered (81.2%). Some drug dispensers made inappropriate recommendations. The locations with the highest levels of noncompliance with the regulation were also those with high rates of unmet basic needs. Conclusions. Five years after passage of a regulation to halt the unrestricted sales of antibiotics, there is minimal compliance, and dispensing does not conform to the established parameters. Pharmacy personnel do not provide the required information according to their responsibilities.


Metabolic syndrome affects about 25% to 45% of the Colombian population according to the diagnostic criteria proposed by the International Diabetes Federation, that in our population appear to be the most useful. It is well known that the metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of three to six times in the development of diabetes and new hypertension cases. In Colombia, a cohort study realized in patients who suffered an acute myocardial infarct showed that insulin resistance was the main factor that predicted cardiovascular death or presence of new cardio-cerebral-vascular events. Furthermore, the presence of metabolic syndrome is more frequently associated with subclinical target organ damage. The main treatment in subjects with metabolic syndrome consists in decrease in body weight through the implementation of a low calorie diet and increase in physical exercise. Besides, patients with this syndrome need additional administration of antihypertensive medication, oral antidiabetic or hypolipemic drugs when there exists evident hypertension, diabetes or dyslipidemia. Given the high cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome, a rigorous blood pressure control maintaining levels always under 130/85 mm Hg, is needed. Unless there may be specific indications, in patients with metabolic syndrome the use of beta-blockers may be avoided given their well known adverse effects in weight increase, incidence of new cases of diabetes, insulin resistance and lipid profile. Tiazid diuretics have diabetogenic effects and other dysmetabolic actions, especially at high doses; for this reason they must not be used in patients with metabolic syndrome. Therefore, the recommended drugs as first choice in hypertensive subjects with metabolic syndrome are the angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) or the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, that have shown to reduce the incidence of diabetes and to have favorable effects in the target organ damage. If the blood pressure is not controlled with monotherapy, a calcium antagonist is added to the ARB or ACE inhibitor. This combination produces a lower incidence of new cases of diabetes than the combination with beta-blockers or tiazid diuretics.


Gancedo C.,Institute Investigaciones
IUBMB life | Year: 2012

Biochemistry in Spain owes much to the figure of Alberto Sols. In words of Nobel Prize winner Severo Ochoa: "He has been the first scientist to establish successfully biochemistry in Spain." His intellectual rigour, care in experimental design, emphasis on quality, and attention to the presentation of results permeated far beyond his inner circle to the then fledging Spanish biochemical community. It would be difficult to find some Spanish biochemist of the generation that now starts to retire who has not been influenced in a way or another by the work of Sols. However, it is also likely that the new generations of biochemists and molecular biologists in the country ignore who was Sols and what their field owns to him. The following lines try to highlight some key points of his scientific biography, the circumstances in which they took place and the state of the corresponding research area at that moment. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Bressani R.,University of the Valley of Guatemala | Bressani R.,Institute Investigaciones
Food and Nutrition Bulletin | Year: 2010

This article describes the efforts of the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP) to develop a relatively low-cost vegetable protein mixture suitable as a complementary food for infants and young children. As it turned out, the resulting product became popular with older children and adults, and its superior nutritional benefits were widely recognized by the population. This effort led to broader studies by INCAP of the nutritional quality of vegetable protein mixtures, including raw materials, processing to convert them into human-grade products, product formulation, and commercialization. © 2010, The United Nations University.

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