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Romero-Gamez M.,IFAPA Institute Investigacion y Formacion Agraria y Pesquera | Castro-Rodriguez J.,IFAPA Institute Investigacion y Formacion Agraria y Pesquera | Suarez-Rey E.M.,IFAPA Institute Investigacion y Formacion Agraria y Pesquera
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2017

Recently, the Spanish olive sector has undergone deep changes regarding agronomic practices. Olive grove cultivation tends to move from traditional low-density to new high-density cropping systems. Irrigation has produced a major change in the olive grove sector and the integrated production plays an important role due to the application of rational farming techniques. The aim of this study was to compare the environmental impacts of a high diversity of olive growing systems existing in Spain, including the integrated production systems. The Life Cycle Assessment methodology has been used to calculate and evaluate potential environmental impacts associated to the olives production phase from the extraction of the raw materials to the oil mill gate. Eight traditional systems, three intensive systems and one super-intensive system were selected to be compared. The agricultural practices were grouped in different stages each one including processes and flows: irrigation, soil management, pruning, fertilizers, pesticides and harvesting. Impact categories such as climate change, acidification, freshwater eutrophication, freshwater ecotoxicity, land use and water resource depletion were selected. The fertilizers stage was clearly the highest contributor in all impact categories, specifically, in the climate change and acidification categories in the intensive not irrigated conventional system. Thus, optimization of fertilization should be the first priority to optimize olive growing. The systems that showed the largest environmental impact for most categories were the intensive irrigated integrated system and the super-intensive irrigated integrated system, despite having higher productivity compared to the rest. The organic systems presented the lowest impacts but should improve their productivity. Integrated production was the best olive fruit production system from an overall environmental and productive point of view, especially the traditional mechanized systems. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Montero-Calasanz M.D.C.,Leibniz Institute DSMZ German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures | Montero-Calasanz M.D.C.,IFAPA Institute Investigacion y Formacion Agraria y Pesquera | Goker M.,Leibniz Institute DSMZ German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures | Potter G.,Leibniz Institute DSMZ German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures | And 6 more authors.
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology | Year: 2013

A novel Gram-strain positive, aerobic, actinobacterial strain, designated CF11/1T, was isolated from a sand sample obtained in the Sahara Desert, Chad. The black-pigmented isolate was aerobic and exhibited optimal growth from 25 to 35 C at pH 6.0-8.0 and with 0-8 % (w/v) NaCl, indicating that it is a halotolerant mesophile. Chemotaxonomic and molecular characteristics of the isolate matched those described for members of the genus Geodermatophilus. The G+C content in the genome was 74.4 mol%. The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as diagnostic diaminoacid. The main phospholipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and a minor fraction of phosphatidylglycerol; MK-9(H 4) was the dominant menaquinone, and galactose was detected as a diagnostic sugar. The major cellular fatty acid was branched-chain saturated acid iso-C16:0. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed 95.3-98.6 % pairwise sequence identity with the members of the genus Geodermatophilus. Based on phenotypic and chemotaxonomic properties, as well as phylogenetic distinctiveness, the isolate represents a novel species, Geodermatophilus africanus, with the type strain CF11/1T (DSM 45422 = CCUG 62969 = MTCC 11556). © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Garcia-Ruiz G.M.,IFAPA Institute Investigacion y Formacion Agraria y Pesquera | Trapero C.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Lopez-Escudero F.J.,University of Cordoba, Spain
HortScience | Year: 2014

The use of continuous and natural lighting was studied to assess the resistance of 12 olive cultivars to the defoliating pathotype of Verticillium dahliae. The plants were inoculated by dipping their bare root system in a conidial suspension. ‘Frantoio’ was used as a moderately resistant control cultivar. Several evaluated cultivars were susceptible to the defoliating pathotype of Verticillium dahliae. However, six of these cultivars were moderately resistant. In most of the evaluated cultivars, continuous lighting allowed for the identification of resistant genotypes during a period that was 3 weeks shorter than that which is normally required in these assessments. This reduction was even greater for the resistant cultivars. The use of continuous lighting could thus be an important tool for use in olive breeding programs, where it is necessary to evaluate many genotypes in short durations and, therefore, to optimize time, space, and labor. © 2014, HORTSCIENCE. All rights reserved.


Montero-Calasanz M.C.,Leibniz Institute DSMZ | Montero-Calasanz M.C.,IFAPA Institute Investigacion y Formacion Agraria y Pesquera | Goker M.,Leibniz Institute DSMZ | Rohde M.,Helmholtz Center for Infection Research | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2013

A novel non-motile, Gram-staining-negative, yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated AG13T, isolated from a rain water pond at a plant nursery in Spain and characterized as a plant-growth-promoting bacterium, was investigated to determine its taxonomic status. The isolate grew best over a temperature range of 15-40 °C, at pH 5.0-8.0 and with 0-4 % (w/v) NaCl. Chemotaxonomic and molecular characteristics of the isolate matched those described for members of the genus Chryseobacterium. The DNA G+C content of the novel strain was 37.2 mol%. The strain had a polyamine pattern with sym-homospermidine as the major compound and produced flexirubin-type pigments. MK-6 was the dominant menaquinone and the major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15: 0, C17: 1ω9c and iso-C17: 0 3-OH. The main polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, aminolipids and several unidentified lipids. The 16S rRNA gene showed 92.0-97.2 % sequence similarity with those of the members of the genus Chryseobacterium. Based on chemotaxonomic and phenotypic traits, and DNA-DNA hybridizations with the type strains of the most closely related species, the isolate is proposed to represent a novel species, Chryseobacterium hispalense, type strain AG13T (= DSM 25574T = CCUG 63019T). Emended descriptions of the species Chryseobacterium defluvii, Chryseobacterium indologenes, Chryseobacterium wanjuense and Chryseobacterium gregarium are also provided. © 2013 IUMS.


Del Carmen Montero-Calasanz M.,Leibniz Institute | Del Carmen Montero-Calasanz M.,IFAPA Institute Investigacion y Formacion Agraria y Pesquera | Goker M.,Leibniz Institute | Rohde M.,Helmholtz Center for Infection Research | And 6 more authors.
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology | Year: 2013

A novel Gram-positive, aerobic, actinobacterial strain, CF6/1T, was isolated in 2007 during environmental screening of arid desert soil in the Sahara near to Ourba, Chad. The isolate was found to grow best in a temperature range of 20-37 C and at pH 6.0-8.5 and showed no NaCl tolerance, forming black-coloured and nearly circular colonies on GYM agar. Chemotaxonomic and molecular characteristics determined for the isolate match those previously described for members of the genus Geodermatophilus. The DNA G + C content of the novel strain was determined to be 74.9 mol %. The peptidoglycan was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The main phospholipids were determined to be phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylcholine, diphosphatidylglycerol and traces of phosphatidylglycerol; MK-9(H4) was identified as the dominant menaquinone and galactose as the diagnostic sugar. The major cellular fatty acids were found to be the branched-chain saturated acids iso-C16:0 and iso-C15:0, as well as C17:1ω8c. The 16S rRNA gene sequence shows 97.5-97.9 % sequence identity with the four validly named or at least effectively published members of the genus: Geodermatophilus obscurus (97.5 %), Geodermatophilus arenarius (97.7 %), Geodermatophilus ruber (97.9 %) and Geodermatophilus nigrescens (97.9 %). Based on the results from this polyphasic taxonomic analysis and DNA-DNA hybridizations with all type strains of the genus, we propose that strain CF6/1T represents a novel species, Geodermatophilus siccatus, with the type strain CF6/1T = DSM 45419T = CCUG 62765T = MTCC 11414T. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Montero-Calasanz M.C.,Leibniz Institute DSMZ | Montero-Calasanz M.C.,IFAPA Institute Investigacion y Formacion Agraria y Pesquera | Goker M.,Leibniz Institute DSMZ | Potter G.,Leibniz Institute DSMZ | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2013

A novel Gram-reaction-positive actinobacterial strain, designated CF5/3T, was isolated from a sand sample obtained in the Sahara Desert, Chad. The greenish-black-pigmented isolate was aerobic and exhibited optimal growth from 25-40 °C at pH 6.0-10.0 with 0-1% (w/v) NaCl. Chemotaxonomic and molecular characteristics of the isolate matched those described for members of the genus Geodermatophilus. The DNA G+C content of the genome of the novel strain was 75.5 mol%. The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as diagnostic diamino acid. The main phospholipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and a minor fraction of phosphatidylglycerol. MK- 9(H4) was the dominant menaquinone, and galactose was detected as a diagnostic sugar. The major cellular fatty acids were branched-chain saturated acids: iso-C15: 0and iso-C16: 0. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed 95.6-98.8% pairwise sequence identity with the members of the genus Geodermatophilus. Based on phenotypic and chemotaxonomic properties, as well as phylogenetic distinctiveness, the isolate represents a novel species, Geodermatophilus normandii, with the type strain CF5/3T(=DSM 45417T=CCUG 62814T=MTCC 11412T). © 2013 IUMS.


Montero-Calasanz M.C.,Leibniz Institute DSMZ | Montero-Calasanz M.C.,IFAPA Institute Investigacion y Formacion Agraria y Pesquera | Goker M.,Leibniz Institute DSMZ | Potter G.,Leibniz Institute DSMZ | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2013

A novel Gram-positive, multiloculated thalli-forming, aerobic, actinobacterial strain, CF9/1/1T, was isolated in 2007 during environmental screening for xerophilic fungi in arid desert soil from the Sahara desert, Chad. The isolate grew best at a temperature range of 20-35 ° C and at pH 6.0-8.5 and with 0-4% (w/v) NaCl, forming black-coloured and irregular colonies on GYM agar. Chemotaxonomic and molecular characteristics of the isolate matched those described for members of the genus Geodermatophilus. The DNA G+C content of the novel strain was 75.4 mol%. The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as a diagnostic diamino acid. The main phospholipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, a not yet structurally identified aminophospholipid and a small amount of phosphatidylglycerol; MK-9(H4) was identified as the dominant menaquinone and galactose was a diagnostic sugar. The major cellular fatty acids were branched-chain saturated acids: iso- C16: 0 and iso-C15: 0. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate showed 94.6-97.0% sequence similarities with those of five members of the genus: Geodermatophilus ruber DSM 45317T (94.6 %), Geodermatophilus obscurus DSM 43160T (94.8 %), Geodermatophilus siccatus DSM 45419T (96.2 %), Geodermatophilus nigrescens DSM 45408T (96.7 %) and Geodermatophilus arenarius DSM 45418T (97.0 %). Based on the evidence from this polyphasic taxonomic study, a novel species, Geodermatophilus telluris sp. nov., is proposed; the type strain is CF9/1/1T (5DSM 45421T5CCUG 62764T). © 2013 IUMS.


Montero-Calasanz M.D.C.,Leibniz Institute DSMZ | Montero-Calasanz M.D.C.,IFAPA Institute Investigacion y Formacion Agraria y Pesquera | Goker M.,Leibniz Institute DSMZ | Broughton W.J.,University of Geneva | And 9 more authors.
Systematic and Applied Microbiology | Year: 2013

Three novel Gram-positive, aerobic, actinobacterial strains, CF5/2T, CF5/1 and CF7/1, were isolated in 2007 during environmental screening of arid desert soil in the Sahara desert, Chad. Results from riboprinting, MALDI-TOF protein spectra and 16S rRNA sequence analysis confirmed that all three strains belonged to the same species. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences with the strains' closest relatives indicated that they represented a distinct species. The three novel strains also shared a number of physiological and biochemical characteristics distinct from previously named Geodermatophilus species. The novel strains' peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid; their main phospholipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and a small amount of phosphatidylglycerol; MK-9(H4) was the dominant menaquinone. The major cellular fatty acids were the branched-chain saturated acids iso-C16:0 and iso-C15:0. Galactose was detected as diagnostic sugar. Based on these chemotaxonomic results, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization between strain CF5/2T and the type strains of Geodermatophilus saharensis, Geodermatophilus arenarius, Geodermatophilus nigrescens, Geodermatophilus telluris and Geodermatophilus siccatus, the isolates CF5/2T, CF5/1 and CF7/1 are proposed to represent a novel species, Geodermatophilus tzadiensis, with type strain CF5/2T=DSM 45416=MTCC 11411 and two reference strains, CF5/1 (DSM 45415) and CF7/1 (DSM 45420). © 2013 Elsevier GmbH.


Romero-Gamez M.,IFAPA Institute Investigacion y Formacion Agraria y Pesquera | Audsley E.,Cranfield University | Suarez-Rey E.M.,IFAPA Institute Investigacion y Formacion Agraria y Pesquera
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2014

Exportation of fresh vegetable products, especially to northern European countries, have expanded significantly in recent years in Spain in response to the demand of developed countries for fresh and high-quality products all year round. Many of these products are produced intensively in protected or semi-protected (mulched) cropping systems. The methodology selected for the environmental study was Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The cropping systems were unheated greenhouse (GH), plastic mulch combined with fleece (PM + F), plastic mulch (PM) and open field (OF). The effects of different nitrogen fertiliser application rates (0%, 25%, 50%, 100%, 125% and 150% of an optimum rate) were evaluated for each system. The aim of this analysis was to identify and study the main environmental problems of producing lettuce and escarole in Spain under different production systems and at different N management application levels. The LCA methodology proved to be a useful tool to evaluate the environmental burdens of producing two leafy crops in Spain. The environmental results were very similar for two crops, but the escarole crop produced a major contribution in all impact categories due to lower commercial yields. The main burdens in the production systems were structure, auxiliary equipment and fertilisers. GH was the production system with the largest environmental impact in all categories and crops due to the greenhouse structure. Improving design of the greenhouse structure and the irrigation system and using recycled materials could produce significant impact reduction. The reduction and optimising of N fertiliser application should be considered a priority to improve the environmental impact of the different cultivation systems. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Suarez-Rey E.M.,IFAPA Institute Investigacion y Formacion Agraria y Pesquera | Romero-Gamez M.,IFAPA Institute Investigacion y Formacion Agraria y Pesquera | Gimenez C.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Thompson R.B.,University of Almeria | Gallardo M.,University of Almeria
Agricultural Systems | Year: 2016

The EU-Rotate_N and the CropSyst simulation models were evaluated in a Mediterranean climate with two leafy vegetable crops, lettuce and escarole, to simulate (i) dry matter production (DMP), (ii) crop N uptake, (iii) marketable crop production, (iv) soil water content (SWC) and (vi) soil mineral N. Nitrogen (N) treatments were examined in three years with differences in N dose. Relevant parameters were calibrated in both models, especially in the CropSyst simulation model which had not been used before for leafy vegetable crops. For both lettuce and escarole, the EU-Rotate_N model accurately simulated DMP, marketable crop production, crop N uptake and soil mineral N. Simulation of SWC with EU-Rotate_N was statistically acceptable for the upper soil layer for both crops. However, during a rainy period at the end of the escarole crop, SWC was overestimated. In both, lettuce and escarole, the performance of CropSyst to simulate DMP and crop N uptake was acceptable; however, it was consistently poorer than with EU-Rotate_N. In lettuce, CropSyst had a tendency to overestimate DMP and crop N uptake under conditions of no N application (N0), and to overestimate soil mineral N in the N fertilizer treatments, especially at harvest. In escarole, the simulation of marketable production with CropSyst was poor. In lettuce, simulations of SWC with CropSyst resulted in unacceptable results suggesting the need for CropSyst to be adapted for drip irrigated vegetable crops. Soil mineral N simulations were poorer with CropSyst than with EU-Rotate_N. The results of this work suggest that the overall performance of EU-Rotate_N was superior to CropSyst in both lettuce and escarole in the conditions of SE Spain. The KNS system was used in combination with the EU-Rotate_N model to optimize N management of lettuce. Crop N fertilizer requirements using the KNS system were determined by using simulations with EU-Rotate_N of both crop N uptake and soil mineral N, and the selection of N buffer levels that ensured no commercial yield or quality losses. In the optimal scenario (defined as that which maximized yield with the smaller N application) N fertilizer was reduced by 57% compared to local practices. In addition, soil mineral N and N leaching were reduced by 61% and 57%, respectively, compared to growers' management. This methodology proved to be a useful and easy tool to be used as a Decision Support System (DSS) to program N fertilization in drip fertigated lettuce. © 2016

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