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Moncada R.,CIBER ISCIII | Moncada R.,Institute Investigacion Sanitario Of Navarra Idisna | Moncada R.,University of Navarra | Rodriguez A.,CIBER ISCIII | And 28 more authors.
Obesity Surgery | Year: 2015

Background: Aging and obesity are two conditions associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Our aim was to analyze whether an advanced age affects the beneficial effects of sleeve gastrectomy on weight loss and blood pressure in an experimental model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Methods: Young (6-month-old) and old (18-month-old) male Wistar DIO rats (n = 101) were subjected to surgical (sham operation and sleeve gastrectomy) or dietary interventions (pair-fed to the amount of food eaten by sleeve gastrectomized animals). Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean (MBP) blood pressure values and heart rate (HR) were recorded in conscious, resting animals by non-invasive tail-cuff plethysmography before and 4 weeks after surgical or dietary interventions. Results: Aging was associated with higher (P < 0.05) body weight and subcutaneous and perirenal fat mass as well as mild cardiac hypertrophy. Sleeve gastrectomy induced a reduction in body weight, whole-body adiposity, and serum total ghrelin in both young and old DIO rats. The younger group achieved a higher excess weight loss than the older group (164 ± 60 vs. 82 ± 17 %, P < 0.05). A significant (P < 0.05) decrease in insulin resistance, SBP, DBP, MBP, and HR without changes in heart weight was observed after sleeve gastrectomy independently of age. Conclusion: Our results provide evidence for the effectiveness of sleeve gastrectomy without increased operative risk in body weight and blood pressure reduction even in aged animals via endocrine changes that go beyond the mere caloric restriction. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Faienza M.F.,University of Bari | Wang D.Q.H.,Saint Louis University | Fruhbeck G.,University of Navarra | Fruhbeck G.,CIBER ISCIII | And 3 more authors.
Internal and Emergency Medicine | Year: 2016

The purpose of this review is to evaluate whether some risk factors in childhood work as significant predictors of the development of obesity and the metabolic syndrome in adulthood. These factors include exposures to risk factors in the prenatal period, infancy and early childhood, as well as other socio-demographic variables. We searched articles of interest in PubMed using the following terms: ‘predictors AND obesity OR Metabolic syndrome AND (children OR adolescents) AND (dyslipidemia OR type 2 diabetes OR atherosclerosis OR hypertension OR hypercholesterolemia OR cardiovascular disease)’ AND genetic OR epigenetic. Maternal age, smoking and weight gain during pregnancy, parental body mass index, birth weight, childhood growth patterns (early rapid growth and early adiposity rebound), childhood obesity and the parents’ employment have a role in early life. Furthermore, urbanization, unhealthy diets, increasingly sedentary lifestyles and genetic/epigenetic variants play a role in the persistence of obesity in adulthood. Health promotion programs/agencies should consider these factors as reasonable targets to reduce the risk of adult obesity. Moreover, it should be a clinical priority to correctly identify obese children who are already affected by metabolic comorbidities. © 2016, SIMI.


Rocha-Rodrigues S.,University of Porto | Rodriguez A.,University of Navarra | Rodriguez A.,Institute Investigacion Sanitario Of Navarra Idisna | Rodriguez A.,CIBER ISCIII | And 14 more authors.
Life Sciences | Year: 2016

Aims Exercise-stimulated myokine secretion into circulation may be related with browning in white adipose tissue (WAT), representing a positive metabolic effect on whole-body fat mass. However, limited information is yet available regarding the impact of exercise on myokine-related modulation of adipocyte phenotype in WAT from obese rats. Main methods Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 60) were divided into sedentary and voluntary physical activity (VPA) groups and fed with standard (35 kcal% fat) or high-fat (HFD, 71 kcal% fat)-isoenergetic diets. The VPA-groups had unrestricted access to wheel running throughout the protocol. After-9 weeks, half of sedentary standard (SS) and sedentary HFD (HS)-fed animals were exercised on treadmill (endurance training, ET) for 8-weeks while maintaining the dietary treatments. Key findings The adipocyte hypertrophy induced by HFD were attenuated by VPA and ET. HFD decreased 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity in muscle as well as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) proteins in eWAT, while not affecting circulating irisin. VPA increased eWAT Tmem26 mRNA levels in the standard diet-fed group, whereas ET increased AMPK, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) protein expression in muscle, but had no impact on circulating irisin protein content. In eWAT, ET increased bone morphogenetic protein 7 (Bmp7), Cidea and PGC-1α in both diet-fed animals, whereas BMP7, Prdm16, UCP1 and FNDC5 only in standard diet-fed group. Significance Data suggest that ET-induced myokine production seems to contribute, at least in part, to the “brown-like” phenotype in WAT from rats fed a HFD. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


Moncada R.,CIBER ISCIII | Moncada R.,Institute Investigacion Sanitario Of Navarra Idisna | Moncada R.,University of Navarra | Becerril S.,CIBER ISCIII | And 31 more authors.
Obesity Surgery | Year: 2016

Background: Susceptibility to obesity is associated with a notable inter-individual variation. The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on weight loss and metabolic profile in obesity-prone (OP) rats vs animals that are non-susceptible to obesity (NSO). Methods: Young male Wistar rats (n = 101) were put in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) programme with ad libitum access to a high-fed diet (HFD) during 12 months. Body weight and food intake were regularly registered. Thereafter, rats were ranked by final body weight to identify the obesity-prone (OP) (n = 13) and non-susceptible to obesity (NSO) (n = 14) animals. OP and NSO rats were submitted to surgical interventions (sham operation, SG and pair-fed to the amount of food eaten by sleeve-gastrectomized rats). Body weight, food intake, energy expenditure, body temperature, fat pads weight, and metabolic profiling were analysed 4 weeks after surgical or dietary interventions. Results: SG in both OP and NSO rats decreased body weight as compared to sham and pair-fed groups (P < 0.05), mainly due to reductions in subcutaneous and perirenal fat mass (P < 0.001). Total weight loss achieved in sleeve-gastrectomized OP and NSO rats was higher than that of pair-fed ones (P < 0.05), showing that the SG effect goes beyond caloric restriction. In this regard, sleeve-gastrectomized rats exhibited significantly (P < 0.05) increased basal rectal temperature together with upregulated brown adipose tissue Ucp-1 protein expression levels. A significant (P < 0.05) improvement in insulin sensitivity was also observed in both OP and NSO animals that underwent SG as compared with pair-fed counterparts. Conclusion: Our findings provide the first evidence that obesity-prone rats also benefit from surgery responding effectively to SG, as evidenced by the significant body weight reduction and the metabolic profile improvement. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


PubMed | Institute Investigacion Sanitario Of Navarra Idisna and CIBER ISCIII
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Obesity surgery | Year: 2016

Aging and obesity are two conditions associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Our aim was to analyze whether an advanced age affects the beneficial effects of sleeve gastrectomy on weight loss and blood pressure in an experimental model of diet-induced obesity (DIO).Young (6-month-old) and old (18-month-old) male Wistar DIO rats (n=101) were subjected to surgical (sham operation and sleeve gastrectomy) or dietary interventions (pair-fed to the amount of food eaten by sleeve gastrectomized animals). Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean (MBP) blood pressure values and heart rate (HR) were recorded in conscious, resting animals by non-invasive tail-cuff plethysmography before and 4weeks after surgical or dietary interventions.Aging was associated with higher (P<0.05) body weight and subcutaneous and perirenal fat mass as well as mild cardiac hypertrophy. Sleeve gastrectomy induced a reduction in body weight, whole-body adiposity, and serum total ghrelin in both young and old DIO rats. The younger group achieved a higher excess weight loss than the older group (16460 vs. 8217%, P<0.05). A significant (P<0.05) decrease in insulin resistance, SBP, DBP, MBP, and HR without changes in heart weight was observed after sleeve gastrectomy independently of age.Our results provide evidence for the effectiveness of sleeve gastrectomy without increased operative risk in body weight and blood pressure reduction even in aged animals via endocrine changes that go beyond the mere caloric restriction.


Moncada R.,Institute Salud Carlos III | Moncada R.,Institute Investigacion Sanitario Of Navarra Idisna | Moncada R.,University of Navarra | Becerril S.,Institute Salud Carlos III | And 31 more authors.
Obesity Surgery | Year: 2015

Background: Susceptibility to obesity is associated with a notable inter-individual variation. The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on weight loss and metabolic profile in obesity-prone (OP) rats vs animals that are non-susceptible to obesity (NSO). Methods: Young male Wistar rats (n = 101) were put in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) programme with ad libitum access to a high-fed diet (HFD) during 12 months. Body weight and food intake were regularly registered. Thereafter, rats were ranked by final body weight to identify the obesity-prone (OP) (n = 13) and non-susceptible to obesity (NSO) (n = 14) animals. OP and NSO rats were submitted to surgical interventions (sham operation, SG and pair-fed to the amount of food eaten by sleeve-gastrectomized rats). Body weight, food intake, energy expenditure, body temperature, fat pads weight, and metabolic profiling were analysed 4 weeks after surgical or dietary interventions. Results: SG in both OP and NSO rats decreased body weight as compared to sham and pair-fed groups (P < 0.05), mainly due to reductions in subcutaneous and perirenal fat mass (P < 0.001). Total weight loss achieved in sleeve-gastrectomized OP and NSO rats was higher than that of pair-fed ones (P < 0.05), showing that the SG effect goes beyond caloric restriction. In this regard, sleeve-gastrectomized rats exhibited significantly (P < 0.05) increased basal rectal temperature together with upregulated brown adipose tissue Ucp-1 protein expression levels. A significant (P < 0.05) improvement in insulin sensitivity was also observed in both OP and NSO animals that underwent SG as compared with pair-fed counterparts. Conclusion: Our findings provide the first evidence that obesity-prone rats also benefit from surgery responding effectively to SG, as evidenced by the significant body weight reduction and the metabolic profile improvement. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

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