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Alloza I.,University of the Basque Country | Otaegui D.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Biodonostia | De Lapuente A.L.,University of the Basque Country | Antiguedad A.,Hospital Of Basurto | And 20 more authors.
Genes and Immunity | Year: 2012

Multiple sclerosis (MS) shares some risk genes with other disorders hallmarked by an autoimmune pathogenesis, most notably IL2RA and CLEC16A. We analyzed 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in nine risk genes, which recently emerged from a series of non-MS genome-wide association studies (GWAS), in a Spanish cohort comprising 2895 MS patients and 2942 controls. We identified two SNPs associated with MS. The first SNP, rs6859219, located in ANKRD55 (Chr5), was recently discovered in a meta-analysis of GWAS on rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and emerged from this study with genome-wide significance (odds ratio (OR)=1.35; P=2.3 × 10 -9). The second SNP, rs12785878, is located near DHCR7 (Chr11), a genetic determinant of vitamin D insufficiency, and showed a size effect in MS similar to that recently observed in Type 1 diabetes (T1D; OR=1.10; P=0.009). ANKRD55 is a gene of unknown function, and is flanked proximally by the IL6ST-IL31RA gene cluster. However, rs6859219 did not show correlation with a series of haplotype-tagging SNPs covering IL6ST-IL31RA, analyzed in a subset of our dataset (D′ < 0.31; r 2 < 0.011). Our results expand the number of risk genes shared between MS, RA and T1D. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Rodriguez M.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Puerta Of Hierro | Silva J.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Puerta Of Hierro | Herrera A.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Puerta Of Hierro | Herrera M.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Puerta Of Hierro | And 12 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2015

Cancer cells efficiently transfer exosome contents (essentially mRNAs and microRNAs) to other cell types, modifying immune responses, cell growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Here we analyzed the exosomes release by breast tumor cells with different capacities of stemness/metastasis based on CXCR4 expression, and evaluated their capacity to generate oncogenic features in recipient cells. Breast cancer cells overexpressing CXCR4 showed an increase in stemness-related markers, and in proliferation, migration and invasion capacities. Furthermore, recipient cells treated with exosomes from CXCR4-cells showed increased in the same abilities. Moreover, inoculation of CXCR4-cell-derived exosomes in immunocompromised mice stimulated primary tumor growth and metastatic potential. Comparison of nucleic acids contained into exosomes isolated from patients revealed a "stemness and metastatic" signature in exosomes of patients with worse prognosis. Finally, our data supported the view that cancer cells with stem-like properties show concomitant metastatic behavior, and their exosomes stimulate tumor progression and metastasis. Exosomes-derived nucleic acids from plasma of breast cancer patients are suitable markers in the prognosis of such patients.


Nunez C.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria San Carlos | Garcia-Gonzalez M.A.,Instituto Aragones Of Ciencias Of La Salud | Garcia-Gonzalez M.A.,CIBER ISCIII | Santiago J.L.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria San Carlos | And 7 more authors.
Human Immunology | Year: 2011

Idiopathic achalasia is an esophageal motor disorder of unknown etiology. A wealth of evidence supports the concept that achalasia is an immune-mediated disease. According to this evidence, achalasia has been significantly associated with specific alleles of the human leukocyte antigen class II, PTPN22 and IL23R. Several studies have demonstrated association of the IL10 gene with different inflammatory disorders. Our aim was to evaluate the role of functional IL10 promoter polymorphisms in susceptibility to idiopathic achalasia. A case-control study was performed with the -1082, -819, and -592 IL10 promoter polymorphisms in 282 patients and 529 controls and in an independent replication set of 75 patients and 575 controls. The GCC haplotype of the IL10 promoter was reported to be associated with a lower risk of achalasia in the discovery sample (odds ratio [OR] = 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.64-0.98, p = 0.029). This association was validated in a replication set (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.48-1.00, p = 0.04). In the combined analysis no heterogeneity was observed between the 2 sample sets and the GCC haplotype was significantly associated with the disease (OR MH = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.63-0.91, p = 0.003). Our results provide the first evidence for an association between IL10 promoter polymorphisms and idiopathic achalasia, suggesting that the interleukin-10 cytokine may contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease. © 2011 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics.


Romero A.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria San Carlos
PloS one | Year: 2013

Large genomic rearrangements (LGRs) in DNA-mismatch-repair (MMR) genes, particularly among MSH2 gene, are frequently involved in the etiology of Lynch syndrome (LS). The Multiplex Ligation and Probe Amplification assay (MLPA) is commonly used to identify such alterations. However, in most cases, the MLPA-identified alteration is not characterized at the molecular level, which might be important to identify recurrent alterations and to analyze the molecular mechanisms underlying these mutational events. Probands from a cohort of Lynch Syndrome families were screened for point mutation in MMR genes, subsequently the MLPA assay was used for LGR screening. The identified MLPA alteration was confirmed by cDNA, CGH-microarrays or massive parallel sequencing. In this study, we have delimited the region of 11 LGRs variants on MSH2 locus. Six of them were fully characterized the breakpoints and 9 of them were considered pathogenic. According to our data, LGR on MSH2 locus constituted the 10.8% (9 out of 83) of pathogenic germline alterations found in LS. The frequency of colorectal cancer (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC) in LGR carriers was 55% and 11% respectively. Analysis of the breakpoint sequences revealed that in 3 cases, deletions appeared to originate from Alu-mediated recombination events. In the remaining cases, sequence alignment failed to detect microhomology around the breakpoints. The present study provides knowledge on the molecular characterization of MSH2 LGRs, which may have important implications in LS diagnosis and Genetic Counseling. In addition, our data suggests that nonhomologous events would be more frequently involved in the etiology of MSH2 LGRs than expected.


Romero A.,Hospital Clinico San Carlos | Prat A.,ValldHebron Institute of Oncology VHIO | Garcia-Saenz J.A.,Hospital Clinico San Carlos | Del Prado N.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria San Carlos | And 8 more authors.
Clinical and Translational Oncology | Year: 2014

Background: Breast cancer subtypes can be identified by genomic testing or pathology-based approximations. However, these classifications are not equivalent and the clinical relevance of both classifications needs to be fully explored. Methods: Ninety-four patients were randomized to neoadjuvant single agent doxorubicin or docetaxel. Tumor subtype was assessed by pathology-based classification and by gene expression using the PAM50 plus the claudin-low predictor (CLP). Kappa Cohen's coefficient (κ) was used to test the agreement between methods. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to determine the significance of each methodology in the prediction of prognosis. Likelihood ratio statistics of both classifications were evaluated. Results: The agreement between pathology-based classification and PAM50 was moderate [κ = 0.551, 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 0.467-0.641]. Tumor subtype assessed by both classifications were prognostic for overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (P < 0.05). However, PAM50 + CLP provided more prognostic information, in terms of OS, than the pathology-based classification (P < 0.05). Patients with triple negative tumors as well as basal-like tumors had worse OS when first treated with doxorubicin (HR = 5.98, 95 % CI 1.25-28.67, and HR = 5.02, 95 % CI 0.96-26.38, respectively). However, claudin-low tumors did not show significant differences in OS according to neoadjuvant treatment branch. Indeed, we found that claudin-low tumors treated with pre-operative doxorubicin had significantly better OS than basal-like tumors treated with neoadjuvant doxorubicin (adjusted HR = 0.16, 95 % CI 0.04-0.69, P = 0.014). Conclusions: The assignment of tumor subtype can differ depending on the methodology, which might have implications on patient's management and therapy selection. © 2013 Federación de Sociedades Españolas de Oncología (FESEO).


PubMed | Institute Investigacion Sanitaria San Carlos
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2013

Large genomic rearrangements (LGRs) in DNA-mismatch-repair (MMR) genes, particularly among MSH2 gene, are frequently involved in the etiology of Lynch syndrome (LS). The Multiplex Ligation and Probe Amplification assay (MLPA) is commonly used to identify such alterations. However, in most cases, the MLPA-identified alteration is not characterized at the molecular level, which might be important to identify recurrent alterations and to analyze the molecular mechanisms underlying these mutational events. Probands from a cohort of Lynch Syndrome families were screened for point mutation in MMR genes, subsequently the MLPA assay was used for LGR screening. The identified MLPA alteration was confirmed by cDNA, CGH-microarrays or massive parallel sequencing. In this study, we have delimited the region of 11 LGRs variants on MSH2 locus. Six of them were fully characterized the breakpoints and 9 of them were considered pathogenic. According to our data, LGR on MSH2 locus constituted the 10.8% (9 out of 83) of pathogenic germline alterations found in LS. The frequency of colorectal cancer (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC) in LGR carriers was 55% and 11% respectively. Analysis of the breakpoint sequences revealed that in 3 cases, deletions appeared to originate from Alu-mediated recombination events. In the remaining cases, sequence alignment failed to detect microhomology around the breakpoints. The present study provides knowledge on the molecular characterization of MSH2 LGRs, which may have important implications in LS diagnosis and Genetic Counseling. In addition, our data suggests that nonhomologous events would be more frequently involved in the etiology of MSH2 LGRs than expected.

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