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Citores M.J.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Puerta Of Hierro Majadahonda Idiphim | Duca A.,Hospital Universitario Puerta Of Hierro Majadahonda | de la Fuente S.,Hospital Universitario Puerta Of Hierro Majadahonda | Vilches C.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Puerta Of Hierro Majadahonda | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Transplantation | Year: 2016

Liver transplantation activates the innate immune system through toll-like receptors (TLRs), potentially leading to allograft rejection and graft failure. We evaluated the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in TLR genes with the severity of hepatitis C virus recurrence after liver transplantation (LT). This is a two-center study of 176 adult patients who received a first LT from deceased donors for hepatitis C virus (HCV) cirrhosis. Eleven polymorphisms were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction and melting curves analyses: TLR1 (Asp248Ser and Ser602Ile), TLR2 (Arg753Gln), TLR3 (Leu412Phe), TLR4 (Asp299Gly), TLR5 (Arg392Stop), TLR6 (Ser249Pro), TLR7 (Gln11Leu), TLR8 (Met1Val), and TLR9 (−1237T/C and −1486C/T). The CC genotype of TLR3 Leu412Phe in liver recipients was associated with severe recurrence (odds ratio (OR) = 2.01, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.02-3.93, p = 0.04). We also analyzed this polymorphism in 72 of their donors but no association was found with severity of HCV recurrence (p = 0.89). Multivariate analysis showed donor age older than 40 yr (OR=2.93; 95% CI = 1.49–5.8, p = 0.002) and the TLR3 Leu412Phe CC genotype (OR=2.02, 95%CI=1.01–4.05, p = 0.046) were independently associated with severe HCV recurrence. Our results show that the TLR3 Leu412Phe CC genotype is independently associated with severity of hepatitis C recurrence after LT. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd Source

Gonzalo-Gobernado R.,Instituto Ramon Y Cajal Of Investigacion Sanitaria | Calatrava-Ferreras L.,Instituto Ramon Y Cajal Of Investigacion Sanitaria | Reimers D.,Instituto Ramon Y Cajal Of Investigacion Sanitaria | Herranz A.S.,Instituto Ramon Y Cajal Of Investigacion Sanitaria | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Liver growth factor (LGF) is a hepatic mitogen purified some years ago that promotes proliferation of different cell types and the regeneration of damaged tissues, including brain tissue. Considering the possibility that LGF could be used as a therapeutic agent in Parkinson's disease, we analyzed its potential neuroregenerative and/or neuroprotective activity when peripherally administered to unilaterally 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats. For these studies, rats subjected to nigrostriatal lesions were treated intraperitoneally twice a week with LGF (5 microg/rat) for 3 weeks. Animals were sacrificed 4 weeks after the last LGF treatment. The results show that LGF stimulates sprouting of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive terminals and increases tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter expression, as well as dopamine levels in the denervated striatum of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. In this structure, LGF activates microglia and raises tumor necrosis factor-alpha protein levels, which have been reported to have a role in neuroregeneration and neuroprotection. Besides, LGF stimulates the phosphorylation of MAPK/ERK1/2 and CREB, and regulates the expression of proteins which are critical for cell survival such as Bcl2 and Akt. Because LGF partially protects dopamine neurons from 6-OHDA neurotoxicity in the substantia nigra, and reduces motor deficits in these animals, we propose LGF as a novel factor that may be useful in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. © 2013 Gonzalo-Gobernado et al. Source

Perez-Luz S.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Perez-Luz S.,CIBER ISCIII | Perez-Luz S.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Puerta Of Hierro Majadahonda | Gimenez-Cassina A.,Karolinska Institutet | And 7 more authors.
Genomics | Year: 2015

Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is the most common form of hereditary ataxia caused by recessive mutations in the FXN gene. Recent results have indicated the presence of different frataxin isoforms due to alternative gene expression mechanisms. Our previous studies demonstrated the advantages of using high-capacity herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) amplicon vectors containing the entire FXN genomic locus (iBAC-FXN) as a gene-delivery vehicle capable of ensuring physiologically-regulated and long-term persistence. Here we describe how expression from the 135. kb human FXN genomic locus produces the three frataxin isoforms both in cultured neuronal cells and also in vivo. Moreover, we also observed the correct expression of these frataxin isoforms in patient-derived cells after delivery of the iBAC-. FXN. These results lend further support to the potential use of HSV-1 vectors containing entire genomic loci whose expression is mediated by complex transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms for gene therapy applications. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Amigo-Jimenez I.,CSIC - Biological Research Center | Bailon E.,CSIC - Biological Research Center | Aguilera-Montilla N.,CSIC - Biological Research Center | Terol M.J.,Hospital Clinico Universitario | And 2 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2015

CLL remains an incurable disease in spite of the many new compounds being studied. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) induces apoptosis in all CLL cell types and could constitute an efficient therapy. To further explore this, we have studied the influence of stromal cells, key components of the CLL microenvironment, on the response of CLL cells to ATO. Bone marrow stromal cells induced CLL cell resistance to 2 μM ATO and led to activation of Lyn, ERK, PI3K and PKC, as well as NF-κB and STAT3. Mcl-1, Bcl-xL, and Bfl-1 were also upregulated after the co-culture. Inhibition experiments indicated that PI3K and PKC were involved in the resistance to ATO induced by stroma. Moreover, idelalisib and sotrastaurin, specific inhibitors for PI3Kδ and PKCβ, respectively, inhibited Akt phosphorylation, NF-κB/STAT3 activation and Mcl-1 upregulation, and rendered cells sensitive to ATO. Mcl-1 was central to the mechanism of resistance to ATO, since: 1) Mcl-1 levels correlated with the CLL cell response to ATO, and 2) blocking Mcl-1 expression or function with specific siRNAs or inhibitors overcame the protecting effect of stroma. We have therefore identified the mechanism involved in the CLL cell resistance to ATO induced by bone marrow stroma and show that idelalisib or sotrastaurin block this mechanism and restore sensibility to ATO. Combination of ATO with these inhibitors may thus constitute an efficient treatment for CLL. Source

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