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Yanez-Mo M.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Princesa | Gutierrez-Lopez M.D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Cabanas C.,Complutense University of Madrid
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

Several recent publications have described examples of physical and functional interations between tetraspanins and specific membrane proteases belonging to the TM-MMP and α-(ADAMs) and γ-secretases families. Collectively, these examples constitute an emerging body of evidence supporting the notion that tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs) represent functional platforms for the regulation of key cellular processes including the release of surface protein ectodomains ("shedding"), regulated intramembrane proteolysis ("RIPing") and matrix degradation and assembly. These cellular processes in turn play a crucial role in an array of physiological and pathological phenomena. Thus, TEMs may represent new therapeutical targets that may simultaneously affect the proteolytic activity of different enzymes and their substrates. Agonistic or antagonistic antibodies and blocking soluble peptides corresponding to tetraspanin functional regions may offer new opportunities in the treatment of pathologies such as chronic inflammation, cancer, or Alzheimer's disease. In this review article, we will discuss all these aspects of functional regulation of protease activities by tetraspanins. © 2011 Springer Basel AG. Source

Montazeri M.,University of Sheffield | Sanchez-Lopez J.A.,University of Sheffield | Caballero I.,University of Sheffield | Caballero I.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 5 more authors.
Human Reproduction

Study Question Does activation of endometrial Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR 3) affect cell receptivity to trophoblast adhesion? Summary Answer TLR 3 activation in vitro reduces the attachment of trophoblast cells to endometrial cells by altering the cell cytoskeleton and reducing the expression of adhesion molecules in human endometrial cells. What is Known Already It is well documented that the presence of an infection at the time of implantation can lead to implantation failure. The female reproductive tract recognizes invading micro-organisms through the innate pathogen recognition receptors such as the TLRs. Study Design, Size, Duration Poly I:C was used as a TLR 3-specific ligand and endometrial cells were either treated or not with Poly I:C (treated versus control) in vitro. The experiments were performed in three replicates on three separate days. Participants/Materials, Setting, Methods An in vitro assay was developed using RL95-2 (a human endometrial cell line) and JAr (a human trophoblast cell line) cells. Initially, the percentage of attached JAr spheroids to RL95-2 was measured in response to TLR 3 activation. Next, actin polymerization in RL95-2 cells was assessed in response to TLR 2/6, 3 and 5 activation. Phalloidin was used to assess the mean fluorescence intensity of F-actin by flow cytometry or confocal microscopy. Secondly, the influence of TLR 2/6, 3 and 5 activation on the expression of cluster of differentiation 98 (CD98) and β 23 integrin was determined. To further understand through which pathways the TLR 3-induced alterations occur, inhibitors were applied for Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon-beta (TRIF), myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MYD88), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and nuclear factor pathways. Main Results and The Role of Chance We observed that stimulation of TLR 3 in endometrial cells with different concentrations of Poly I:C led to a reduction in the percentage of trophoblasts attached to the endometrial cells in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). This decrease was consistent in the Poly I:C treated group regardless of the co-incubation time (P < 0.05). In addition, our results demonstrated that actin polymerization and CD98 expression significantly decreased only in response to TLR 3 activation (P < 0.05). Activation of endometrial cells with TLR 2/6, 3 and 5 significantly reduced β 23 integrin expression (P < 0.05). These alterations were shown to work via MYD88-MAPK pathways (P < 0.05). Limitations, Reasons For Caution This study has been performed in vitro. Future in vivo studies will be required in order to confirm our data. Wider Implications of The Findings This is a novel discovery which extends our current knowledge concerning diagnosis and treatment of viral-induced infertility cases. Study Funding/Competing Interest(S) This research was supported by the COST Action FA1201 (GEMINI) by granting a Short Term Scientific Mission and the Instituto de Salud Carlos III by granting Grant PI11/01645. The authors have no conflict of interest to declare. © 2015 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. Source

Andreu Z.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Princesa | Yanez-Mo M.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Princesa
Frontiers in Immunology

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent a novel mechanism of intercellular communication as vehicles for intercellular transfer of functional membrane and cytosolic proteins, lipids, and RNAs. Microvesicles, ectosomes, shedding vesicles, microparticles, and exosomes are the most common terms to refer to the different kinds of EVs based on their origin, composition, size, and density. Exosomes have an endosomal origin and are released by many different cell types, participating in different physiological and/or pathological processes. Depending on their origin, they can alter the fate of recipient cells according to the information transferred. In the last two decades, EVs have become the focus of many studies because of their putative use as non-invasive biomarkers and their potential in bioengineering and clinical applications. In order to exploit this ability of EVs many aspects of their biology should be deciphered. Here, we review the mechanisms involved in EV biogenesis, assembly, recruitment of selected proteins, and genetic material as well as the uptake mechanisms by target cells in an effort to understand EV functions and their utility in clinical applications. In these contexts, the role of proteins from the tetraspanin superfamily, which are among the most abundant membrane proteins of EVs, will be highlighted. © 2014 Andreu and Yáñez-Mó. Source

Cruz-Adalia A.,CSIC - National Center for Biotechnology | Cruz-Adalia A.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Princesa | Ramirez-Santiago G.,CSIC - National Center for Biotechnology | Ramirez-Santiago G.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Princesa | And 17 more authors.
Cell Host and Microbe

Dendritic cells (DCs) phagocytose, process, and present bacterial antigens to T lymphocytes to trigger adaptive immunity. In vivo, bacteria can also be found inside T lymphocytes. However, T cells are refractory to direct bacterial infection, leaving the mechanisms by which bacteria invade T cells unclear. We show that T cells take up bacteria from infected DCs by the process of transinfection, which requires direct contact between the two cells and is enhanced by antigen recognition. Prior to transfer, bacteria localize to the immunological synapse, an intimate DC/T cell contact structure that activates T cells. Strikingly, T cells efficiently eliminate the transinfecting bacteria within the first hours after infection. Transinfected T cells produced high levels of proinflammatory cytokines and were able to protect mice from bacterial challenge following adoptive transfer. Thus, T lymphocytes can capture and kill bacteria in a manner reminiscent of innate immunity. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Martin-Cofreces N.B.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Princesa | Baixauli F.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Princesa | Lopez M.J.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Princesa | Gil D.,Rochester College | And 3 more authors.
EMBO Journal

The role of microtubules (MTs) in the control and dynamics of the immune synapse (IS) remains unresolved. Here, we show that T cell activation requires the growth of MTs mediated by the plus-end specific protein end-binding 1 (EB1). A direct interaction of the T cell receptor (TCR) complex with EB1 provides the molecular basis for EB1 activity promoting TCR encounter with signalling vesicles at the IS. EB1 knockdown alters TCR dynamics at the IS and prevents propagation of the TCR activation signal to LAT, thus inhibiting activation of PLCγ1 and its localization to the IS. These results identify a role for EB1 interaction with the TCR in controlling TCR sorting and its connection with the LAT/PLCγ1 signalosome. © 2012 European Molecular Biology Organization | All Rights Reserved. Source

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