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Fernandez-Martinez M.,Hospital Universitario Marques Of Valdecilla Idival | Miro E.,Biomedical Research Institute Sant Pau | Ortega A.,Institute Salud Carlos III | Bou G.,Complejo Hospitalario Universitario runa | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents | Year: 2015

Abstract The activity of eight aminoglycosides (amikacin, apramycin, arbekacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, netilmicin and tobramycin) against a collection of 257 amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC)-resistant Escherichia coli isolates was determined by microdilution. Aminoglycoside resistance rates, the prevalence of aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme (AME) genes, the relationship between AME gene detection and resistance phenotype to aminoglycosides, and the association of AME genes with mechanisms of AMC resistance in E. coli isolates in Spain were investigated. Aminoglycoside-resistant isolates were screened for the presence of genes encoding common AMEs [aac(3)-Ia, aac(3)-IIa, aac(3)-IVa, aac(6′)-Ib, ant(2′)-Ia, ant(4′)-IIa and aph(3′)-Ia] or 16S rRNA methylases (armA, rmtB, rmtC and npmA). In total, 105 isolates (40.9%) were resistant to at least one of the aminoglycosides tested. Amikacin, apramycin and arbekacin showed better activity, with MIC90 values of 2 mg/L (arbekacin) and 8 mg/L (amikacin and apramycin). Kanamycin presented the highest MIC90 (128 mg/L). The most common AME gene was aac(6′)-Ib (36 strains; 34.3%), followed by aph(3′)-Ia (31 strains; 29.5%), ant(2′)-Ia (29 strains; 27.6%) and aac(3)-IIa (23 strains; 21.9%). aac(3)-Ia, aac(3)-IVa, ant(4′)-IIa and the four methylases were not detected. The ant(2′)-Ia gene was usually associated with OXA-1 [21/30; 70%], whilst 23/25 (92%) strains producing CTX-M-15 had the aac(6′)-Ib gene. The most prevalent AME gene was aac(6′)-Ib (18/41; 44%) in nosocomial isolates, whilst ant(2′)-Ia and aph(3′)-Ia genes (20/64; 31%) were more frequent in strains of community origin. In 64.6% isolates the phenotypic profile correlated with the presence of commonly encountered AMEs. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy.

Parmentier F.B.R.,University of the Balearic Islands | Parmentier F.B.R.,University of Western Australia | Parmentier F.B.R.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Of Palma Idispa | Comesana M.,University of Minho | Soares A.P.,University of Minho
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology | Year: 2016

Research shows that contextual diversity (CD; the number of different contexts in which a word appears within a corpus) constitutes a better predictor of reading performance than word frequency (WF), that it mediates the access to lexical representations, and that controlling for contextual CD abolishes the effect of WF in lexical decision tasks. Despite the theoretical relevance of these findings for the study of serial memory, it is not known how CD might affect serial recall performance. We report the first independent manipulation of CD and WF in a serial recall task. Experiment 1 revealed better performance for low CD and for high WF words independently. Both effects affected omissions and item errors, but contrary to past research, word frequency also affected order errors. These results were confirmed in two more experiments comparing pure and alternating lists of low and high CD (Experiment 2) or WF (Experiment 3). The effect of CD was immune to this manipulation, while that of WF was abolished in alternating lists. Altogether the findings suggest a more difficult episodic retrieval of item information for words of high CD, and a role for both item and order information in the WF effect. © 2016 The Experimental Psychology Society

Parmentier F.B.R.,University of the Balearic Islands | Parmentier F.B.R.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Of Palma Idispa | Parmentier F.B.R.,University of Western Australia | Kefauver M.,University of the Balearic Islands
Brain Research | Year: 2015

Rare changes in a stream of otherwise repeated task-irrelevant sounds break through selective attention and disrupt performance in an unrelated visual task. This deviance distraction effect emerges because deviant sounds violate the cognitive system's predictions. In this study we sought to examine whether predictability also mediate the so-called semantic effect whereby behavioral performance suffers from the clash between the involuntary semantic evaluation of irrelevant sounds and the voluntary processing of visual targets (e.g.; when participants must categorize a right visual arrow following the presentation of the deviant sound "left"). By manipulating the conditional probabilities of the congruent and incongruent deviant sounds in a left/right arrow categorization task, we elicited implicit predictions about the upcoming target and related response. We observed a linear increase of the semantic effect with the proportion of congruent deviant trials (i.e.; as deviant sounds increasingly predicted congruent targets). We conclude that deviant sounds affect response times based on a combination of crosstalk interference and two types of prediction violations: stimulus violations (violations of predictions regarding the identity of upcoming irrelevant sounds) and semantic violations (violations of predictions regarding the target afforded by deviant sounds). We report a three-parameter model that captures all key features of the observed RTs. Overall, our results fit with the view that the brain builds forward models of the environment in order to optimize cognitive processing and that control of one's attention and actions is called upon when predictions are violated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Oteo J.,Institute Salud Carlos III | Bou G.,Complejo Hospitalario Universitario runa | Chaves F.,Hospital Universitario 12 Of Octubre | Oliver A.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Of Palma Idispa
Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia Clinica | Year: 2016

The presence of colonised patients is one of the main routes for the spread of multiresistant bacteria, and its containment is a clinical and public health priority. Surveillance studies are essential for early detection of colonisation by these bacteria. This article discusses the different microbiological methods, both based on culturing and molecular methods, for detection of carriers of multiresistant bacteria. Those species with a high clinical/epidemiological impact or generating therapeutic difficulties are included: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp. resistant to glycopeptides, enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum β-lactamases and plasmid-mediated AmpC, carbapenemases producing enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii and multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The information in this document should be considered as a structure matrix to be tailored to the specific needs of each centre. © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica.

Mayas J.,Spanish University for Distance Education (UNED) | Parmentier F.B.R.,University of the Balearic Islands | Parmentier F.B.R.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Of Palma Idispa | Parmentier F.B.R.,University of Western Australia | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

A major goal of recent research in aging has been to examine cognitive plasticity in older adults and its capacity to counteract cognitive decline. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether older adults could benefit from brain training with video games in a cross-modal oddball task designed to assess distraction and alertness. Twenty-seven healthy older adults participated in the study (15 in the experimental group, 12 in the control group. The experimental group received 20 1-hr video game training sessions using a commercially available brain-training package (Lumosity) involving problem solving, mental calculation, working memory and attention tasks. The control group did not practice this package and, instead, attended meetings with the other members of the study several times along the course of the study. Both groups were evaluated before and after the intervention using a cross-modal oddball task measuring alertness and distraction. The results showed a significant reduction of distraction and an increase of alertness in the experimental group and no variation in the control group. These results suggest neurocognitive plasticity in the old human brain as training enhanced cognitive performance on attentional functions. © 2014 Mayas et al.

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