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Miravitlles M.,CIBER ISCIII | Barrecheguren M.,CIBER ISCIII | Romain-Rodriguez M.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Of Palma
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2015

SETTING: Clinical phenotypes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) identify patients with common characteristics. OBJ E CTIVE S : To investigate the distribution of four different COPD phenotypes: non-exacerbators, patients with asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS), exacerbators with chronic bronchitis and those without, we analysed the impact of COPD on quality of life (HRQoL), and on anxiety and depression in these phenotypes. DESIGN: Observational, multicentre study conducted among 3125 COPD patients recruited from out-patient clinics in Barcelona, Spain. Phenotyping was performed based on the clinical information available. The COPD Assessment Test and EuroQoL-5 Dimensions questionnaire were used to evaluate HRQoL; patient mood was evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). R ES U LT S : The distribution of phenotypes was as follows: 60.6% non-exacerbators, 15.9% ACOS patients, 19.3% exacerbators with chronic bronchitis and 4.3% exacerbators without chronic bronchitis. Nonexacerbators had milder COPD, whereas exacerbators presented with the most severe disease, with little difference between those with and those without chronic bronchitis. ACOS patients were more frequently female with better lung function, but more impaired HRQoL and greater anxiety and depression, than non-exacerbators. CONCLUS IONS : Almost two thirds of COPD patients are non-exacerbators, and 15.9% have ACOS. Different phenotypes showed different demographic and clinical characteristics as well as impact on HRQoL and mood. © 2015 The Union.

Elsley J.V.,Bournemouth University | Parmentier F.B.R.,University of the Balearic Islands | Parmentier F.B.R.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Of Palma | Parmentier F.B.R.,University of Western Australia
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology | Year: 2015

Verbal–spatial bindings are integral to routine cognitive operations (e.g., reading), yet the processes supporting them in working memory are little understood. Campo and colleagues [Campo, P., Poch, C., Parmentier, F. B. R., Moratti, S., Elsley, J. V., Castellanos, N., … Maestú, F. (2010). Oscillatory activity in prefrontal and posterior regions during implicit letter-location binding. Neuroimage, 49, 2807–2815] recently reported data suggesting obligatory letter–location binding when participants were directed to remember the letters in a display (of letters in locations), but no evidence for binding when instructed to remember the filled locations. The present study contrasted two explanations for this binding asymmetry. First, it may result from an obligatory dependence on “where” during the representation of “what” information, while “where” information may be held independently of its contents (the strong asymmetry hypothesis). Second, it may constitute a snapshot of a dynamic feature inhibition process that had partially completed by test: the asymmetrical inhibition hypothesis. Using Campo and colleagues’ task with a variable retention interval between display and test, we presented four consonants in distinct locations and contrasted performance between “remember letters” and “remember locations” instructions. Our data supported the strong asymmetry hypothesis through demonstrating binding in the verbal task, but not in the spatial task. Critically, when present, verbal–spatial bindings were remarkably stable, enduring for at least 15 seconds. © 2014, © 2014 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis.

Roswall N.,Danish Cancer Society | Angquist L.,Institute of Preventive Medicine | Ahluwalia T.S.,Novo Nordisk AS | Ahluwalia T.S.,Copenhagen University | And 19 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2014

Background: Several studies have shown that adherence to the Mediterranean Diet measured by using the Mediterranean diet score (MDS) is associated with lower obesity risk. The newly proposed Nordic Diet could hold similar beneficial effects. Because of the increasing focus on the interaction between diet and genetic predisposition to adiposity, studies should consider both diet and genetics.Objective: We investigated whether FTO rs9939609 and TCF7L2 rs7903146 modified the association between the MDS and Nordic diet score (NDS) and changes in weight (Δweight), waist circumference (ΔWC), and waist circumference adjusted for body mass index (BMI) (ΔWCBMI).Design: We conducted a case-cohort study with a median followup of 6.8 y that included 11,048 participants from 5 European countries; 5552 of these subjects were cases defined as individuals with the greatest degree of unexplained weight gain during followup. A randomly selected subcohort included 6548 participants, including 5496 noncases. Cases and noncases were compared in analyses by using logistic regression. Continuous traits (ie, Δweight, ΔWC, and ΔWCBMI) were analyzed by using linear regression models in the random subcohort. Interactions were tested by including interaction terms in models.Results: A higher MDS was significantly inversely associated with case status (OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.00), ΔWC (β = -0.010 cm/ y; 95% CI: -0.020, -0.001 cm/y), and ΔWCBMI(β = -0.008; 95% CI:-0.015, -0.001) per 1-point increment but not Δweight (P = 0.53). The NDS was not significantly associated with any outcome. There was a borderline significant interaction between the MDS and TCF7L2 rs7903146 on weight gain (P = 0.05), which suggested a beneficial effect of the MDS only in subjects who carried 1 or 2 risk alleles. FTO did not modify observed associations.Conclusions: A high MDS is associated with a lower ΔWC and ΔWCBMI, regardless of FTO and TCF7L2 risk alleles. For Δweight, findings were less clear, but the effect may depend on the TCF7L2 rs7903146 variant. The NDS was not associated with anthropometric changes during follow-up. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

Euba B.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Enfermedades Respiratorias Ciberes | Euba B.,Public University of Navarra | Moleres J.,Public University of Navarra | Segura V.,University of Navarra | And 10 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2015

Therapies that are safe, effective, and not vulnerable to developing resistance are highly desirable to counteract bacterial infections. Host-directed therapeutics is an antimicrobial approach alternative to conventional antibiotics based on perturbing host pathways subverted by pathogens during their life cycle by using host-directed drugs. In this study, we identified and evaluated the efficacy of a panel of host-directed drugs against respiratory infection by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). NTHi is an opportunistic pathogen that is an important cause of exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We screened for host genes differentially expressed upon infection by the clinical isolate NTHi375 by analyzing cell whole-genome expression profiling and identified a repertoire of host target candidates that were pharmacologically modulated. Based on the proposed relationship between NTHi intracellular location and persistence, we hypothesized that drugs perturbing host pathways used by NTHi to enter epithelial cells could have antimicrobial potential against NTHi infection. Interfering drugs were tested for their effects on bacterial and cellular viability, on NTHi-epithelial cell interplay, and on mouse pulmonary infection. Glucocorticoids and statins lacked in vitro and/or in vivo efficacy. Conversely, the sirtuin-1 activator resveratrol showed a bactericidal effect against NTHi, and the PDE4 inhibitor rolipram showed therapeutic efficacy by lowering NTHi375 counts intracellularly and in the lungs of infected mice. PDE4 inhibition is currently prescribed in COPD, and resveratrol is an attractive geroprotector for COPD treatment. Together, these results expand our knowledge of NTHi-triggered host subversion and frame the antimicrobial potential of rolipram and resveratrol against NTHi respiratory infection. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Parmentier F.B.R.,University of the Balearic Islands | Parmentier F.B.R.,University of Western Australia | Parmentier F.B.R.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Of Palma | Beaman C.P.,University of Reading
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology | Year: 2015

Across 5 experiments, the temporal regularity and content of an irrelevant speech stream were varied and their effects on a serial recall task examined. Variations of the content, but not the rhythm, of the irrelevant speech stimuli reliably disrupted serial recall performance in all experiments. Bayesian analyses supported the null hypothesis over the hypothesis that irregular rhythms would disrupt memory to a greater extent than regular rhythms. Pooling the data in a combined analysis revealed that regular presentation of the irrelevant speech was significantly more disruptive to serial recall than irregular presentation. These results are consistent with the idea that auditory distraction is sensitive to both intraitem and interitem relations and challenge an orienting-based account of auditory distraction. © 2014 Canadian Psychological Association.

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