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Marques-Rocha J.L.,Federal University of Viçosa | Samblas M.,University of Navarra | Milagro F.I.,University of Navarra | Milagro F.I.,Charles III University of Madrid | And 7 more authors.
FASEB Journal | Year: 2015

Chronic inflammation is involved in the onset and development of many diseases, including obesity, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, osteoarthritis, autoimmune and degenerative diseases, asthma, periodontitis, and cirrhosis. The inflammation process is mediated by chemokines, cytokines, and different inflammatory cells. Although the molecules and mechanisms that regulate this primary defense mechanism are not fully understood, recent findings offer a putative role of noncoding RNAs, especially microRNAs (miR-NAs), in the progression and management of the inflammatory response. These noncoding RNAs are crucial for the stability and maintenance of gene expression patterns that characterize some cell types, tissues, and biologic responses. Several miRNAs, such as miR-126, miR-132, miR-146, miR-155, and miR-221, have emerged as important transcriptional regulators of some inflammation-related mediators. Additionally, little is known about the involvement of long noncoding RNAs, long intergenic noncoding RNAs, and circular RNAs in inflammation-mediated processes and the homeostatic imbalance associated with metabolic disorders. These noncoding RNAs are emerging as biomarkers with diagnosis value, in prognosis protocols, or in the personalized treatment of inflammation-related alterations. In this context, this review summarizes findings in the field, highlighting those noncoding RNAs that regulate inflammation, with emphasis on recognized mediators such as TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, IL-18, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, VCAM-1, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. The down-regulation or antagonism of the noncoding RNAs and the administration of exogenous miRNAs could be, in the near future, a promising therapeutic strategy in the treatment of inflammation-related diseases. © FASEB.


Guada M.,University of Navarra | Guada M.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Of Navarra | Sebastian V.,University of Zaragoza | Sebastian V.,CIBER ISCIII | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Nanomedicine | Year: 2015

Cyclosporine A (CsA) is an immunosuppressant commonly used in transplantation for prevention of organ rejection as well as in the treatment of several autoimmune disorders. Although commercial formulations are available, they have some stability, bioavailability, and toxicity related problems. Some of these issues are associated with the drug or excipients and others with the dosage forms. With the aim of overcoming these drawbacks, lipid nanoparticles (LN) have been proposed as an alternative, since excipients are biocompatible and also a large amount of surfactants and organic solvents can be avoided. CsA was successfully incorporated into LN using the method of hot homogenization followed by ultrasonication. Three different formulations were optimized for CsA oral administration, using different surfactants: Tween® 80, phosphatidylcholine, taurocholate and Pluronic® F127 (either alone or mixtures). Freshly prepared Precirol nanoparticles showed mean sizes with a narrow size distribution ranging from 121 to 202 nm, and after freeze-drying were between 163 and 270 nm, depending on the stabilizer used. Surface charge was negative in all LN developed. High CsA entrapment efficiency of approximately 100% was achieved. Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the morphology of the optimized LN. Also, the crystallinity of the nanoparticles was studied by X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The presence of the drug in LN surfaces was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The CsA LN developed preserved their physicochemical properties for 3 months when stored at 4°C. Moreover, when the stabilizer system was composed of two surfactants, the LN formulations were also stable at room temperature. Finally, the new CsA formulations showed in vitro dose-dependent immunosuppressive effects caused by the inhibition of IL-2 levels secreted from stimulated Jurkat cells. The findings obtained in this paper suggest that new lipid nanosystems are a good alternative to produce physicochemically stable CsA formulations for oral administration. © 2015 Guada et al.


De Miguel-Etayo P.,University of Zaragoza | De Miguel-Etayo P.,Instituto Agroalimentario Of Aragon Ia2 | Muro C.,Instituto Agroalimentario Of Aragon Ia2 | Santabarbara J.,University of Zaragoza | And 14 more authors.
International Journal of Obesity | Year: 2016

The aims of this study were to identify the cognitive and behavioral predictors of dropping out and to estimate the attrition rate during different phases of an intervention program to treat overweight and obesity in adolescents. Overweight/obese adolescents (n=156, aged: 13-16 years; 71 male and 85 female subjects) were included in a multicomponent (diet, physical activity and psychological support) family-based group treatment program. At baseline and after 2 months (intensive phase) and 13 months (extensive phase) of follow-up, we measured adolescents' cognitive and behavioral dimensions, together with the parents' perception of their child's behavior. Of the 156 adolescents selected, 112 completed the full program (drop-out rate of 28.2%). The risk of dropping out during the extensive phase increased by 20% for each unit increase in the adolescent's social insecurity score (odds ratio=1.20, 95% confidence interval=1.07-1.34, P=0.002). The adolescents who had a high interoceptive awareness showed a significant decrease of 13.0% in the probability of dropping out (odds ratio=0.87, 95% confidence interval=0.77-0.99, P=0.040). Adolescents' social insecurity was the main predictor of drop-out in a multicomponent family-group-based obesity treatment program. To reduce attrition rates in these programs, the individual's social insecurity level needs to be reduced, whereas the family's awareness of eating-related behavior needs adjustment. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Rodriguez A.,University of Navarra | Rodriguez A.,CIBER ISCIII | Rodriguez A.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Of Navarra | Ezquerro S.,University of Navarra | And 9 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2015

Adipose tissue constitutes an extremely active endocrine organ with a network of signaling pathways enabling the organism to adapt to a wide range of different metabolic challenges, such as starvation, stress, infection, and short periods of gross energy excess. The functional pleiotropism of adipose tissue relies on its ability to synthesize and release a huge variety of hormones, cytokines, complement and growth factors, extracellular matrix proteins, and vasoactive factors, collectively termed adipokines. Obesity is associated with adipose tissue dysfunction leading to the onset of several pathologies including type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, nonalcoholic fatty liver, or hypertension, among others. The mechanisms underlying the development of obesity and its associated comorbidities include the hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia of adipocytes, adipose tissue inflammation, impaired extracellular matrix remodeling, and fibrosis together with an altered secretion of adipokines. Recently, the potential role of brown and beige adipose tissue in the protection against obesity has been also recognized. In contrast to white adipocytes, which store energy in the form of fat, brown and beige fat cells display energy-dissipating capacity through the promotion of triacylglycerol clearance, glucose disposal, and generation of heat for thermogenesis. Identification of the morphological and molecular changes in white, beige, and brown adipose tissue during weight gain is of utmost relevance for the identification of pharmacological targets for the treatment of obesity and its associated metabolic diseases. © 2015 the American Physiological Society.


Porrero C.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Rodriguez-Moreno J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Quetglas J.I.,Research Center Medica Aplicada | Quetglas J.I.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Of Navarra | And 4 more authors.
Frontiers in Neuroanatomy | Year: 2016

We report a highly efficient, simple, and non-infective method for labeling individual long-range projection neurons (LRPNs) in a specific location with enough sparseness and intensity to allow complete and unambiguous reconstructions of their entire axonal tree. The method is based on the “in vivo” transfection of a large RNA construct that drives the massive expression of green fluorescent protein. The method combines two components: injection of a small volume of a hyperosmolar NaCl solution containing the Pal-eGFP-Sindbis RNA construct (Furuta et al. 2001), followed by the application of high-frequency electric current pulses through the micropipette tip. We show that, although each component alone increases transfection efficacy, compared to simple volume injections of standard RNA solution, the highest efficacy (85.7%) is achieved by the combination of both components. In contrast with the infective viral Sindbis vector, RNA transfection occurs exclusively at the position of the injection micropipette tip. This method simplifies consistently labeling one or a few isolated neurons per brain, a strategy that allows unambiguously resolving and quantifying the brain-wide and often multi-branched monosynaptic circuits created by LRPNs. © 2016 Porrero, Rodríguez-Moreno, Quetglas, Smerdou, Furuta and Clascá.


Martinez-Lopez J.,Hospital Universitario 12 Of Octubre | Paiva B.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Of Navarra | Lopez-Anglada L.,Hospital Universitario 12 Of Octubre | Mateos M.-V.,Hospital Universitario Of Salamanca Instituto Of Investigacion Biomedica Of Salamanca | And 17 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2015

Stringent complete response (sCR) criteria are used in multiple myeloma as a deeper response category compared with CR, but prospective validation is lacking, it is not always clear how evaluation of clonality is performed, and is it not known what the relative clinical influence is of the serum free light chain ratio (sFLCr) and bone marrow (BM) clonality to define more sCR. To clarify this controversy, we focused on 94 patients that reached CR, of which 69 (73%) also fulfilled the sCR criteria. Patients with sCR displayed slightly longer time to progression (median, 62 vs 53 months, respectively; P = .31). On analyzing this contribution to the prognosis of sFLCr or clonality, it was found that the sFLCr does not identify patients in CR at distinct risk; by contrast, low-sensitive multiparametric flow cytometry (MFC) immunophenotyping (2 colors), which is equivalent to immunohistochemistry, identifies a small number of patients (5 cases) with high residual tumor burden and dismal outcome; nevertheless, using traditional 4-color MFC, persistent clonal BM disease was detectable in 36% of patients, who, compared with minimal residual disease-negative cases, had a significantly inferior outcome. These results show that the current definition of sCR should be revised. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.


PubMed | University of Granada, Hospital Infantil Universitario Nino Jesus, University of Zaragoza, University of Navarra and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of obesity (2005) | Year: 2016

The aims of this study were to identify the cognitive and behavioral predictors of dropping out and to estimate the attrition rate during different phases of an intervention program to treat overweight and obesity in adolescents. Overweight/obese adolescents (n=156, aged: 13-16 years; 71 male and 85 female subjects) were included in a multicomponent (diet, physical activity and psychological support) family-based group treatment program. At baseline and after 2 months (intensive phase) and 13 months (extensive phase) of follow-up, we measured adolescents cognitive and behavioral dimensions, together with the parents perception of their childs behavior. Of the 156 adolescents selected, 112 completed the full program (drop-out rate of 28.2%). The risk of dropping out during the extensive phase increased by 20% for each unit increase in the adolescents social insecurity score (odds ratio=1.20, 95% confidence interval=1.07-1.34, P=0.002). The adolescents who had a high interoceptive awareness showed a significant decrease of 13.0% in the probability of dropping out (odds ratio=0.87, 95% confidence interval=0.77-0.99, P=0.040). Adolescents social insecurity was the main predictor of drop-out in a multicomponent family-group-based obesity treatment program. To reduce attrition rates in these programs, the individuals social insecurity level needs to be reduced, whereas the familys awareness of eating-related behavior needs adjustment.


Hernandez-Alcoceba R.,University of Navarra | Hernandez-Alcoceba R.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Of Navarra | Poutou J.,University of Navarra | Poutou J.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Of Navarra | And 4 more authors.
Immunotherapy | Year: 2016

IL-12 is an immunostimulatory cytokine with strong antitumor properties. Systemic administration of IL-12 in cancer patients led to severe toxic effects, prompting the development of gene therapy vectors able to express this cytokine locally in tumors. Both nonviral and viral vectors have demonstrated a high antitumor efficacy in preclinical tumor models. Some of these vectors, including DNA electroporation, adenovirus and ex vivo transduced dendritic cells, were tested in patients, showing low toxicity and moderate antitumor efficacy. IL-12 activity can be potentiated by molecules with immunostimulatory, antiangiogenic or cytotoxic activity. These combination therapies are of clinical interest because they could lower the threshold for IL-12 efficacy, increasing the therapeutic potential of gene therapy and preventing the toxicity mediated by this cytokine. © 2016 Future Medicine Ltd.


Garcia-Rueda N.,University of Navarra | Garcia-Rueda N.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Of Navarra | Carvajal Valcarcel A.,University of Navarra | Carvajal Valcarcel A.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Of Navarra | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer Care | Year: 2016

The aim of the study was to understand the experience of people living with advanced-stage cancer through literature. The search included The Cochrane Library, PubMed, PsycInfo, CINAHL and Cuiden. Thirteen studies were included. A qualitative meta-synthesis was conducted. One thread emerged from the thematic synthesis: the desire to live as normally as possible, despite being aware of the proximity of death. Three themes also emerged: “a process that is unique” with its four sub-themes; “support network” and “health context,” each of them having two sub-themes. This study concludes that living with advanced-stage cancer is a unique and complex process which has both positive and negative aspects. The review provides a comprehensive view of the experience, which considers the importance of the support network and the health context in which the person lives. In this study, “normalcy” is the adjustment to the new reality and living as closely as possible to the way one lived before the disease, while developing a new relationship with being finite and death. A better understanding of the experience of living with advanced-stage cancer will help health professionals to identify the needs of the patients in order to plan individual, high-quality care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd


Murillo O.,University of Navarra | Murillo O.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Of Navarra | Luqui D.M.,University of Navarra | Luqui D.M.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Of Navarra | And 20 more authors.
Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2016

Background & Aims Wilson's disease (WD) is an autosomal recessively inherited copper storage disorder due to mutations in the ATP7B gene that causes hepatic and neurologic symptoms. Current treatments are based on lifelong copper chelating drugs and zinc salts, which may cause side effects and do not restore normal copper metabolism. In this work we assessed the efficacy of gene therapy to treat this condition. Methods We transduced the liver of the Atp7b-/- WD mouse model with an adeno-associated vector serotype 8 (AAV8) encoding the human ATP7B cDNA placed under the control of the liver-specific α1-antitrypsin promoter (AAV8-AAT-ATP7B). After vector administration we carried out periodic evaluation of parameters associated with copper metabolism and disease progression. The animals were sacrificed 6 months after treatment to analyze copper storage and hepatic histology. Results We observed a dose-dependent therapeutic effect of AAV8-AAT-ATP7B manifested by the reduction of serum transaminases and urinary copper excretion, normalization of serum holoceruloplasmin, and restoration of physiological biliary copper excretion in response to copper overload. The liver of treated animals showed normalization of copper content and absence of histological alterations. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that AAV8-AAT-ATP7B-mediated gene therapy provides long-term correction of copper metabolism in a clinically relevant animal model of WD providing support for future translational studies.

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