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de Castro L.F.,University of San Pablo - CEU | Maycas M.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz | Bravo B.,University of San Pablo - CEU | Esbrit P.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz | Gortazar A.,University of San Pablo - CEU
Journal of Cellular Physiology | Year: 2015

Mechanical loading plays a key role in bone formation and maintenance. While unloading induces osteocyte apoptosis and bone loss in vivo, mechanical stimuli prevents osteocyte death through a mechanism involving β-catenin accumulation and ERK nuclear translocation. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has a crucial role in bone formation, but its interaction with osteocytes is not completely understood. Of interest, VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) has recently been shown to mediate the mechanical response of endothelial cells. The present study aimed to evaluate the putative role of the VEGF system in osteocyte mechanosensing. We show that either short (10min) mechanical stimulus by pulsatile fluid flow (FF) (10dyn/cm2, 8Hz) or exogenous VEGF165 (6ng/ml) similarly stimulated cell viability, ERK phosphorylation, and β-catenin membrane translocation. A VEGFR2 antagonist (SU5416) or transfection with specific VEGFR2 siRNAs (siVEGFR2) decreased these events. FF for 10min increased VEGFR2 phosphorylation at both Tyr-1059 and Tyr-1175; an effect that was mimicked by VEGF165 but was unaffected by a VEGF neutralizing antibody. Subsequently (at 6h), this mechanical stimulus induced VEGF gene overexpression, which was prevented by siVEGFR2 transfection. Depletion of the structural protein caveolin-1 by using siRNA technology impaired FF-induced VEGFR2 phosphorylation. In conclusion, these in vitro findings point to caveolin-1-dependent VEGFR2 activation as an important mechanism whereby mechanical stimuli promote osteocyte viability. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

El Assar M.,Hospital Universitario Of Getafe | Angulo J.,Instituto Ramon Y Cajal Of Investigacion Sanitaria Irycis | Santos-Ruiz M.,Servicio Of Analisis Clinicos Del Hospital Universitario Of Getafe | Moreno P.,U.S. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Insulin resistance (IR) is frequently associated with endothelial dysfunction and has been proposed to play a major role in cardiovascular disease (CVD). On the other hand, amylin has long been related to IR. However the role of amylin in the vascular dysfunction associated to IR is not well addressed. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the effect of acute treatment with amylin on endothelium-dependent vasodilation of isolated mesenteric arteries from control (CR) and insulin resistant (IRR) rats and to evaluate the possible mechanisms involved. Five week-old male Wistar rats received 20% D-fructose dissolved in drinking water for 8 weeks and were compared with age-matched CR. Plasmatic levels of glucose, insulin and amylin were measured. Mesenteric microvessels were dissected and mounted in wire myographs to evaluate endothelium-dependent vasodilation to acetylcholine. IRR displayed a significant increase in plasmatic levels of glucose, insulin and amylin and reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation when compared to CR. Acute treatment of mesenteric arteries with r-amylin (40 pM) deteriorated endothelium-dependent responses in CR. Amylin-induced reduction of endothelial responses was unaffected by the H2O2 scavenger, catalase, but was prevented by the extracellular superoxide scavenger, superoxide dismutase (SOD) or the NADPH oxidase inhibitor (VAS2870). By opposite, amylin failed to further inhibit the impaired relaxation in mesenteric arteries of IRR. SOD, or VAS2870, but not catalase, ameliorated the impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation in IRR. At concentrations present in insulin resistance conditions, amylin impairs endothelium-dependent vasodilation in mircrovessels from rats with preserved vascular function and low levels of endogenous amylin. In IRR with established endothelial dysfunction and elevated levels of amylin, additional exposure to this peptide has no effect on endothelial vasodilation. Increased superoxide generation through NADPH oxidase activity may be a common link involved in the endothelial dysfunction associated to insulin resistance and to amylin exposure in CR. © 2015 El Assar et al.

Bartolome A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Bartolome A.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Diabetes fermedades Metabolicas Asociadas | Bartolome A.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Del Hospital Clinico San Carlos Of Madrid | Lopez-Herradon A.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz | And 11 more authors.
Biochemical Journal | Year: 2013

Autophagy is a highly regulated homoeostatic process involved in the lysosomal degradation of damaged cell organelles and proteins. This process is considered an important pro-survival mechanism under diverse stress conditions. A diabetic milieu is known to hamper osteoblast viability and function. In the present study, we explored the putative protective role of autophagy in osteoblastic cells exposed to an HG (high glucose) medium. HG was found to increase protein oxidation and triggered autophagy by a mechanism dependent on reactive oxygen species overproduction in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. MC3T3-E1 cell survival was impaired by HG and worsened by chemical or genetic inhibition of autophagy. These findings were mimicked by H2O2-induced oxidative stress in these cells. Autophagy impairment led to both defective mitochondrial morphology and decreased bioenergetic machinery and inhibited further osteoblast differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells upon exposure to HG. These novel findings indicate that autophagy is an essential mechanism to maintain osteoblast viability and function in an HG environment. © 2013 Biochemical Society.

de Castro L.F.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz | Lozano D.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz | Portal-Nunez S.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz | Maycas M.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Cellular Physiology | Year: 2012

We here compared the changes induced by subcutaneous injection of PTHrP (1-36) or PTHrP (107-139) (80μg/kg/day, 5days/week for 4 or 8 weeks) in bone histology and bone remodeling factors, and in bone marrow cells (BMCs) ex vivo, in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. We also examined the osteogenic effects of these peptides in mouse mesenchymal C3H10T1/2 cells under oxidative stress condition in vitro, which recapitulates the effects of OVX. We confirmed that PTHrP (1-36) exerts bone anabolic actions, as assessed by bone histology and osteoblast differentiation markers in the long bones and plasma from OVX mice. PTHrP (107-139) was also efficient in stimulating several bone formation parameters, and it dramatically decreased bone resorption markers. Moreover, both PTHrP peptides modulate DKK-1 and Sost/sclerostin in osteoblast-like UMR-106 cells highly expressing these Wnt pathway inhibitors, related to their osteogenic action in this in vivo scenario. Administration of either PTHrP peptide improved osteogenic differentiation in BMCs from OVX mice ex vivo and in mouse mesenchymal C3H10T1/2 cells under oxidative stress condition in vitro. These data demonstrate that PTHrP (1-36) and PTHrP (107-139) can exert similar osteogenic effects in the appendicular skeleton of OVX mice. Our results suggest that these effects might occur in part by modulating the Wnt pathway. These findings lend credence to the notion that the osteogenic action of PTHrP (107-139) is likely a consequence of its anti-resorptive and anabolic features, and further support the usefulness of PTHrP (1-36) as a bone anabolic peptide in the setting of estrogen-depletion. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Lopez-Herradon A.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz | Portal-Nunez S.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz | Garcia-Martin A.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz | Lozano D.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Recent in vivo findings suggest that the bone sparing effect of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in diabetic mice might occur at least in part through targeting a suppressed Wnt/β-catenin pathway in osteoblasts. We here aimed to examine the inhibitory action of a high glucose environment on specific components of the canonical Wnt pathway, and the putative compensatory effects of PTHrP, in osteoblastic cell cultures. Mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and primary cultures of fetal mouse calvaria were exposed to normal (5.5 mM) or high (25 mM) D-glucose (HG), with or without PTHrP (1-36) or PTHrP (107-139) for different times. In some experiments, MC3T3-E1 cells were incubated with the Wnt pathway activators Wnt3a and LiCl, or were transfected with plasmids encoding either a mutated β-catenin that cannot be targeted for degradation or a human PTHrP (-36/+139) cDNA, or the corresponding empty plasmid, in the presence or absence of HG. The gene expression of Wnt3a and low density receptor-like proteins (LRP)-5 and 6, as well as β-catenin protein stabilization and β-catenin-dependent transcription activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress status under HG condition was also assessed. The present data demonstrate that HG can target different components of the canonical Wnt pathway, while β-catenin degradation appears to be a key event leading to inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in mouse osteoblastic cells. Both PTHrP peptides tested were able to counteract this deleterious action of HG. These in vitro findings also provide new clues to understand the underlying mechanisms whereby PTHrP can increase bone formation. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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