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de Castro L.F.,University of San Pablo - CEU | Maycas M.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz | Bravo B.,University of San Pablo - CEU | Esbrit P.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz | Gortazar A.,University of San Pablo - CEU
Journal of Cellular Physiology | Year: 2015

Mechanical loading plays a key role in bone formation and maintenance. While unloading induces osteocyte apoptosis and bone loss in vivo, mechanical stimuli prevents osteocyte death through a mechanism involving β-catenin accumulation and ERK nuclear translocation. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has a crucial role in bone formation, but its interaction with osteocytes is not completely understood. Of interest, VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) has recently been shown to mediate the mechanical response of endothelial cells. The present study aimed to evaluate the putative role of the VEGF system in osteocyte mechanosensing. We show that either short (10min) mechanical stimulus by pulsatile fluid flow (FF) (10dyn/cm2, 8Hz) or exogenous VEGF165 (6ng/ml) similarly stimulated cell viability, ERK phosphorylation, and β-catenin membrane translocation. A VEGFR2 antagonist (SU5416) or transfection with specific VEGFR2 siRNAs (siVEGFR2) decreased these events. FF for 10min increased VEGFR2 phosphorylation at both Tyr-1059 and Tyr-1175; an effect that was mimicked by VEGF165 but was unaffected by a VEGF neutralizing antibody. Subsequently (at 6h), this mechanical stimulus induced VEGF gene overexpression, which was prevented by siVEGFR2 transfection. Depletion of the structural protein caveolin-1 by using siRNA technology impaired FF-induced VEGFR2 phosphorylation. In conclusion, these in vitro findings point to caveolin-1-dependent VEGFR2 activation as an important mechanism whereby mechanical stimuli promote osteocyte viability. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


PubMed | Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Complutense University of Madrid, Indiana University, University of San Pablo - CEU and CIBER ISCIII
Type: | Journal: Journal of cellular physiology | Year: 2017

Diabetes mellitus (DM) induces bone deterioration, while mechanical stimulation promotes osteocyte-driven bone formation. We aimed to evaluate the interaction of acute exposure (24h) to high glucose (HG) with both the pro-survival effect conferred to osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells and osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells by mechanical stimulation and the interaction of these cells with osteoclast precursor RAW264.7 cells. We found that 24h of HG (25mM) pre-exposure prevented both cell survival and ERK and -catenin nuclear translocation upon mechanical stimulation by fluid flow (FF) (10min) in both MLO-Y4 and MC3T3-E1 cells. However, migration of RAW 264.7 cells was inhibited by MLO-Y4 cell-conditioned medium (CM), but not by MC3T3-E1 cell-CM, with HG or FF. This inhibitory effect was associated with consistent changes in VEGF, RANTES, MIP-1, MIP-1 MCP-1 and GM-CSF in MLO-Y4 cell-CM. RAW264.7 proliferation was inhibited by MLO-Y4 CM under static or HG conditions, but itincreased by FF-CM with or without HG. In addition, both FF and HG abrogated the capacity of RAW 264.7 cells to differentiate into osteoclasts, but in a different manner. Thus, HG-CM in static condition allowed formation of osteoclast-like cells, which were unable to resorb hydroxyapatite. In contrast, FF-CM prevented osteoclastogenesis even in HG condition. Moreover, HG did not affect basal RANKL or IL-6 secretion or their inhibition induced by FF in MLO-Y4 cells. In conclusion, this in vitro study demonstrates that HG exerts disparate effects on osteocyte mechanotransduction, and provides a novel mechanism by which DM disturbs skeletal metabolism through altered osteocyte-osteoclast communication. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


Lopez-Herradon A.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz | Portal-Nunez S.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz | Garcia-Martin A.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz | Lozano D.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Recent in vivo findings suggest that the bone sparing effect of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in diabetic mice might occur at least in part through targeting a suppressed Wnt/β-catenin pathway in osteoblasts. We here aimed to examine the inhibitory action of a high glucose environment on specific components of the canonical Wnt pathway, and the putative compensatory effects of PTHrP, in osteoblastic cell cultures. Mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and primary cultures of fetal mouse calvaria were exposed to normal (5.5 mM) or high (25 mM) D-glucose (HG), with or without PTHrP (1-36) or PTHrP (107-139) for different times. In some experiments, MC3T3-E1 cells were incubated with the Wnt pathway activators Wnt3a and LiCl, or were transfected with plasmids encoding either a mutated β-catenin that cannot be targeted for degradation or a human PTHrP (-36/+139) cDNA, or the corresponding empty plasmid, in the presence or absence of HG. The gene expression of Wnt3a and low density receptor-like proteins (LRP)-5 and 6, as well as β-catenin protein stabilization and β-catenin-dependent transcription activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress status under HG condition was also assessed. The present data demonstrate that HG can target different components of the canonical Wnt pathway, while β-catenin degradation appears to be a key event leading to inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in mouse osteoblastic cells. Both PTHrP peptides tested were able to counteract this deleterious action of HG. These in vitro findings also provide new clues to understand the underlying mechanisms whereby PTHrP can increase bone formation. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


de Castro L.F.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz | Lozano D.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz | Portal-Nunez S.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz | Maycas M.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Cellular Physiology | Year: 2012

We here compared the changes induced by subcutaneous injection of PTHrP (1-36) or PTHrP (107-139) (80μg/kg/day, 5days/week for 4 or 8 weeks) in bone histology and bone remodeling factors, and in bone marrow cells (BMCs) ex vivo, in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. We also examined the osteogenic effects of these peptides in mouse mesenchymal C3H10T1/2 cells under oxidative stress condition in vitro, which recapitulates the effects of OVX. We confirmed that PTHrP (1-36) exerts bone anabolic actions, as assessed by bone histology and osteoblast differentiation markers in the long bones and plasma from OVX mice. PTHrP (107-139) was also efficient in stimulating several bone formation parameters, and it dramatically decreased bone resorption markers. Moreover, both PTHrP peptides modulate DKK-1 and Sost/sclerostin in osteoblast-like UMR-106 cells highly expressing these Wnt pathway inhibitors, related to their osteogenic action in this in vivo scenario. Administration of either PTHrP peptide improved osteogenic differentiation in BMCs from OVX mice ex vivo and in mouse mesenchymal C3H10T1/2 cells under oxidative stress condition in vitro. These data demonstrate that PTHrP (1-36) and PTHrP (107-139) can exert similar osteogenic effects in the appendicular skeleton of OVX mice. Our results suggest that these effects might occur in part by modulating the Wnt pathway. These findings lend credence to the notion that the osteogenic action of PTHrP (107-139) is likely a consequence of its anti-resorptive and anabolic features, and further support the usefulness of PTHrP (1-36) as a bone anabolic peptide in the setting of estrogen-depletion. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


PubMed | Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Servicio Of Analisis Clinicos Del Hospital Universitario Of Getafe, Hospital Clinic Of Barcelona, Hospital Ramon y Cajal and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Insulin resistance (IR) is frequently associated with endothelial dysfunction and has been proposed to play a major role in cardiovascular disease (CVD). On the other hand, amylin has long been related to IR. However the role of amylin in the vascular dysfunction associated to IR is not well addressed. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the effect of acute treatment with amylin on endothelium-dependent vasodilation of isolated mesenteric arteries from control (CR) and insulin resistant (IRR) rats and to evaluate the possible mechanisms involved. Five week-old male Wistar rats received 20% D-fructose dissolved in drinking water for 8 weeks and were compared with age-matched CR. Plasmatic levels of glucose, insulin and amylin were measured. Mesenteric microvessels were dissected and mounted in wire myographs to evaluate endothelium-dependent vasodilation to acetylcholine. IRR displayed a significant increase in plasmatic levels of glucose, insulin and amylin and reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation when compared to CR. Acute treatment of mesenteric arteries with r-amylin (40 pM) deteriorated endothelium-dependent responses in CR. Amylin-induced reduction of endothelial responses was unaffected by the H2O2 scavenger, catalase, but was prevented by the extracellular superoxide scavenger, superoxide dismutase (SOD) or the NADPH oxidase inhibitor (VAS2870). By opposite, amylin failed to further inhibit the impaired relaxation in mesenteric arteries of IRR. SOD, or VAS2870, but not catalase, ameliorated the impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation in IRR. At concentrations present in insulin resistance conditions, amylin impairs endothelium-dependent vasodilation in mircrovessels from rats with preserved vascular function and low levels of endogenous amylin. In IRR with established endothelial dysfunction and elevated levels of amylin, additional exposure to this peptide has no effect on endothelial vasodilation. Increased superoxide generation through NADPH oxidase activity may be a common link involved in the endothelial dysfunction associated to insulin resistance and to amylin exposure in CR.


PubMed | Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Autonomous University of Madrid, Hospital Clinico and Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Puerta Of Hierro Majadahonda Idiphim Hospital Universitario Puerta Of Hierro
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revista de psiquiatria y salud mental | Year: 2016

To examine the effectiveness of playing chess as a treatment option for children with ADHD.Parents of 44 children ages 6 to 17 with a primary diagnosis of ADHD consented to take part in the study. Parents completed the Spanish version of the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham Scale for parents (SNAP-IV) and the Abbreviated Conners Rating Scales for parents (CPRS-HI) prior to an 11-week chess-training program. We used a paired t-test to compare pre- and post-intervention outcomes, and Cohen-d calculations to measure the magnitude of the effect. The statistical significance was set at P<.05.Children with ADHD improved in both the SNAP-IV (t=6.23; degrees of freedom (df)=41; P<.001) and the CPRS-HI (t=5.39; df=33; P<.001). Our results suggest a large effect in decreasing the severity of ADHD as measured by the SNAP-IV (d=0.85) and the CPRS-HI (d=0.85). Furthermore, we found a correlation between intelligence quotient and SNAP-IV improvement (P<.05).The results of our pilot study should be interpreted with caution. This pilot project highlights the importance of carrying out larger studies with a case-control design. If our results are replicated in better designed studies, playing chess could be included within the multimodal treatment of ADHD.


El Assar M.,Hospital Universitario Of Getafe | Angulo J.,Hospital Ramon y Cajal | Santos-Ruiz M.,Servicio Of Analisis Clinicos Del Hospital Universitario Of Getafe | Moreno P.,U.S. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Insulin resistance (IR) is frequently associated with endothelial dysfunction and has been proposed to play a major role in cardiovascular disease (CVD). On the other hand, amylin has long been related to IR. However the role of amylin in the vascular dysfunction associated to IR is not well addressed. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the effect of acute treatment with amylin on endothelium-dependent vasodilation of isolated mesenteric arteries from control (CR) and insulin resistant (IRR) rats and to evaluate the possible mechanisms involved. Five week-old male Wistar rats received 20% D-fructose dissolved in drinking water for 8 weeks and were compared with age-matched CR. Plasmatic levels of glucose, insulin and amylin were measured. Mesenteric microvessels were dissected and mounted in wire myographs to evaluate endothelium-dependent vasodilation to acetylcholine. IRR displayed a significant increase in plasmatic levels of glucose, insulin and amylin and reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation when compared to CR. Acute treatment of mesenteric arteries with r-amylin (40 pM) deteriorated endothelium-dependent responses in CR. Amylin-induced reduction of endothelial responses was unaffected by the H2O2 scavenger, catalase, but was prevented by the extracellular superoxide scavenger, superoxide dismutase (SOD) or the NADPH oxidase inhibitor (VAS2870). By opposite, amylin failed to further inhibit the impaired relaxation in mesenteric arteries of IRR. SOD, or VAS2870, but not catalase, ameliorated the impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation in IRR. At concentrations present in insulin resistance conditions, amylin impairs endothelium-dependent vasodilation in mircrovessels from rats with preserved vascular function and low levels of endogenous amylin. In IRR with established endothelial dysfunction and elevated levels of amylin, additional exposure to this peptide has no effect on endothelial vasodilation. Increased superoxide generation through NADPH oxidase activity may be a common link involved in the endothelial dysfunction associated to insulin resistance and to amylin exposure in CR. © 2015 El Assar et al.


Nuche-Berenguer B.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz | Lozano D.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz | Gutierrez-Rojas I.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz | Moreno P.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Endocrinology | Year: 2011

Increased fat mass contributes to bone deterioration. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and its related peptide exendin 1-39 amide (Ex-4), two lipid-lowering peptides, exert osteogenic effects in diabetic states. We examined the actions of 3-day administration of GLP-1 or Ex-4 on bone remodeling markers and on bone mass and structure in hyperlipidic (HL) and hypercaloric rats. Wistar rats on a hyperlipidemic diet for 35 days were subcutaneously administered GLP-1 (0.86 nmol/kg per h), Ex-4 (0.1 nmol/kg per h), or saline (control) by continuous infusion for 3 days. After killing, tibiae were removed for total RNA and protein isolation, as well as femurs and L1-L4 vertebrae for bone mass and quality assessment. Body weight and plasma insulin were unaltered in HL rats, which showed osteopenia (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), associated with hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia. GLP-1 or Ex-4 administration decreased the levels of glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol in plasma but increased osteocalcin (OC) gene expression and the osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) ratio - at the expense of an augmented OPG - above corresponding control values in the tibia. Each tested peptide similarly reversed the decreased femoral and vertebral bone mass in these rats, whereas the deteriorated trabecular structure in the vertebrae improved associated with normalization of bone remodeling. These findings demonstrate that GLP-1 and Ex-4 are similarly efficient in reversing the bone alterations in this HL rat model, which has proven to be useful for studying the fat-bone relationships. © 2011 Society for Endocrinology.


Portal-Nunez S.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz | Lozano D.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz | Esbrit P.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz
Histology and Histopathology | Year: 2012

Angiogenesis and bone formation are coupled during skeletal development and fracture healing. This relationship, although known for some time, has not been properly explored. Advances in the discovery of how angiogenesis is regulated in physiological processes like embryogenesis, endometrial regeneration and wound healing or in pathologies such as cancer have provided a deeper understanding of how angiogenic factors may interact with bone cells to improve bone formation and bone regeneration. The lack of oxygen (hypoxia) and the subsequent generation of angiogenic factors have been shown to be critical in the development of a regular skeleton and achieving successful bone regeneration and fracture healing. Given that vascular status is important for a proper bone homeostasis, defining the roles of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, endothelial cells and angiogenic factors and their interactions in bone is a key issue for the development of new strategies to manage bone pathologies and nonfused fractures.


PubMed | Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz and Autonomous University of Barcelona
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Calcified tissue international | Year: 2016

The only bone anabolic agent currently available for osteoporosis treatment is parathyroid hormone (PTH)-either its N-terminal 1-34 fragment or the whole molecule of 1-84 aminoacids-whose intermittent administration stimulates new bone formation by targeting osteoblastogenesis and osteoblast survival. PTH-related protein (PTHrP) is an abundant factor in bone which shows N-terminal homology with PTH and thus exhibits high affinity for the same PTH type 1 receptor in osteoblasts. Therefore, it is not surprising that intermittently administered N-terminal PTHrP peptides induce bone anabolism in animals and humans. Furthermore, the C-terminal region of PTHrP also elicits osteogenic features in vitro in osteoblastic cells and in various animal models of osteoporosis. In this review, we discuss the current concepts about the cellular and molecular mechanisms whereby PTHrP may induce anabolic actions in bone. Pre-clinical studies and clinical data using N-terminal PTHrP analogs are also summarized, pointing to PTHrP as a promising alternative to current bone anabolic therapies.

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