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Gonzalez-Estecha M.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IdISSC | Bodas-Pinedo A.,Asociacion de Educacion para la Salud ADEPS | Guillen-Perez J.J.,Sociedad Espanola de Sanidad Ambiental SESA | Rubio-Herrera M.A.,Sociedad Espanola de Endocrinologia y Nutricion SEEN | And 21 more authors.
Nutricion Hospitalaria | Year: 2014

Mercury is an environmental toxicant that causes numerous adverse effects on human health and natural ecosystems. The factors that determine the existance of adverse effects, as well as their severity are, among others: the chemical form of mercury (elemental, inorganic, organic), dosis, age, period of exposure, pathways of exposure and environmental, nutritional and genetic factors. In the aquatic cycle of mercury, once it has been deposited, it is transformed into methylmercury due to the action of certain sulphate-reducing bacteria, which bioaccumulates in the aquatic organisms and moves into the food chain. The methylmercury content of large, long-lived fish such as swordfish, shark, tuna or marlin, is higher. Methylmercury binds to protein in fish and is therefore not eliminated by cleaning or cooking the fish. Fetuses and small children are more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of methylmercury from the consumption of contaminated fish. Methylmercury is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier and the placenta. The intake of certain dietary components such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, selenium, fiber, thiol compounds, certain phytochemicals and other nutrients can modify methylmercury bioaccesibility and its toxicity. Apart from environmental factors, genetic factors can influence mercury toxicity and explain part of the individual vulnerability. © 2014 Grupo Aula Medica S.A. All rights reserved. Source


Gonzalez-Estecha M.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IdISSC | Bodas-Pinedo A.,Asociacion de Educacion para la Salud ADEPS | Martinez-Garcia M.J.,Sociedad Espanola de Sanidad Ambiental SESA | Trasobares-Iglesias E.M.,Sociedad Espanola de Bioquimica Clinica y Patologia Molecular SEQC | And 22 more authors.
Nutricion Hospitalaria | Year: 2015

The beneficial effects of fish consumption are well-known. Nevertheless, there is worldwide concern regard methylmercury concentrations in fish, which is why many countries such as the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and numerous European countries have made fish consumption recommendations for their populations, particularly vulnerable groups, in order to México methylmercury intake. Blood and hair are the best biological samples for measuring methylmercury. The most widely-used method to analyse methylmercury is cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, although there are also direct methods based on the thermal decomposition of the sample. In recent years, the number of laboratories that measure mercury by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has increased. In addition, the different kinds of mercury can be distinguished by coupling chromatography methods of separation. Laboratories that analyse mercury in biological samples need to participate in external quality control programmes. Even if mercury emissions are reduced, mercury may remain in the environment for many years, so dietary recommendations are fundamental in order to reduce exposure. It is necessary to propose public health measures aimed at decreasing mercury exposure and to evaluate the benefits of such measures from the economic and social standpoints. © 2015, Grupo Aula Medica S.A. All rights reserved. Source


Gonzalez-Estecha M.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IdISSC | Bodas-Pinedo A.,Asociacion de Educacion para la Salud ADEPS | Guillen-Perez J.J.,Sociedad Espanola de Sanidad Ambiental SESA | Rubio-Herrera M.A.,Sociedad Espanola de Endocrinologia y Nutricion SEEN | And 22 more authors.
Nutricion Clinica y Dietetica Hospitalaria | Year: 2014

The beneficial effects of fish consumption in both children and adults are well known. However, the intake of methylmercury, mainly from contaminated fish and shellfish, can have adverse health effects. the study group on the prevention of exposure to methylmercury (GEPREM-Hg), made up of representatives from different Spanish scientific societies, has prepared a consensus document in a question and ans wer format, containing the group's main conclusions, recommendations and proposals. the objective of the document is to provide broader knowledge of factors associated with methylmercury exposure, its possible effects on health among the Spanish population, methods of analysis, interpretation of the results and economic costs, and to then set recommendations for fish and shellfish consumption. the group sees the merit of all initiatives aimed at reducing or prohibiting the use of mercury as well as the need to be aware of the results of contaminant analyses performed on fish and shellfish marketed in Spain. In addition, the group believes that biomonitoring systems should be set up in order to follow the evolution of methylmercury exposure in children and adults and perform studies designed to learn more about the possible health effects of concentrations found in the Spanish population, taking into account the lifestyle, eating patterns and the Mediterranean diet. Source


Gonzalez-Estecha M.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria IdISSC | Bodas-Pinedo A.,Spanish Association of Health Education ADEPS | Guillen-Perez J.J.,Spanish Association of Health Education ADEPS | Rubio-Herrera M.T.,Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition SEEN | And 24 more authors.
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2015

The beneficial effects of fish consumption in both children and adults are well known. However, the intake of methylmercury, mainly from contaminated fish and shellfish, can have adverse health effects. The study group on the prevention of exposure to methylmercury (GEPREM-Hg), made up of representatives from different Spanish scientific societies, has prepared a consensus document in a question and answer format, containing the group's main conclusions, recommendations and proposals. The objective of the document is to provide broader knowledge of factors associated with methylmercury exposure, its possible effects on health amongst the Spanish population, methods of analysis, interpretation of the results and economic costs, and to then set recommendations for fish and shellfish consumption. The group sees the merit of all initiatives aimed at reducing or prohibiting the use of mercury as well as the need to be aware of the results of contaminant analyses performed on fish and shellfish marketed in Spain. In addition, the group believes that biomonitoring systems should be set up in order to follow the evolution of methylmercury exposure in children and adults and perform studies designed to learn more about the possible health effects of concentrations found in the Spanish population, taking into account the lifestyle, eating patterns and the Mediterranean diet. © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. Source

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