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Iglesias I.,University of Murcia | Ripoll J.,Charles III University of Madrid | Ripoll J.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Gregorio Maranon
Optics Express | Year: 2014

A new method to obtain the three-dimensional localization of fluorochrome distributions in micrometric samples is presented. It uses a microlens array coupled to the image port of a standard microscope to obtain tomographic data by a filtered back-projection algorithm. Scanning of the microlens array is proposed to obtain a dense data set for reconstruction. Simulation and experimental results are shown and the implications of this approach in fast 3D imaging are discussed. ©2014 Optical Society of America. Source

Vaquero J.J.,Charles III University of Madrid | Vaquero J.J.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Gregorio Maranon | Kinahan P.,University of Washington
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering | Year: 2015

Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is based on detecting two time-coincident high-energy photons from the emission of a positron-emitting radioisotope. The physics of the emission, and the detection of the coincident photons, give PET imaging unique capabilities for both very high sensitivity and accurate estimation of the in vivo concentration of the radiotracer. PET imaging has been widely adopted as an important clinical modality for oncological, cardiovascular, and neurological applications. PET imaging has also become an important tool in preclinical studies, particularly for investigating murine models of disease and other small-Animal models. However, there are several challenges to using PET imaging systems. These include the fundamental trade-offs between resolution and noise, the quantitative accuracy of the measurements, and integration with X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. In this article, we review how researchers and industry are addressing these challenges. © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Guinea J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Guinea J.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Gregorio Maranon | Guinea J.,CIBER ISCIII
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2014

Only five species account for 92% of cases of candidemia (Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei); however, their distribution varies in population-based studies conducted in different geographical areas. C. albicans is the most frequent species, but considerable differences are found between the number of cases caused by C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis. Studies from Northern Europe and the USA reported a high number of cases caused by C. glabrata, whereas studies from Spain and Brazil demonstrated a lower number of cases caused by C. glabrata and a higher number of cases attributed to C. parapsilosis. Globally, the frequency of C. albicans is decreasing, while that of C. glabrata and C. krusei is stable, and C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis are increasing. Patient characteristics and prior antifungal therapy also have a considerable influence on the distribution and frequency of Candida spp., regardless of the geographical area. C. albicans is more frequent in patients aged up to 18 years, the frequency of C. parapsilosis decreases with age, and C. glabrata is more common in the elderly. Finally, the presence of horizontal transmission of Candida spp. isolates (reported mainly in patients from the adult medical and post-surgical ICU, patients from oncology-haematology units, and neonates) can affect species distribution. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Source

Herbec A.,University of Glasgow | Kauppi J.-P.,Aalto University | Jola C.,University of Abertay Dundee | Tohka J.,Charles III University of Madrid | And 2 more authors.
Cortex | Year: 2015

Intersubject correlation (ISC) analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data provides insight into how continuous streams of sensory stimulation are processed by groups of observers. Although edited movies are frequently used as stimuli in ISC studies, there has been little direct examination of the effect of edits on the resulting ISC maps. In this study we showed 16 observers two audiovisual movie versions of the same dance. In one experimental condition there was a continuous view from a single camera (Unedited condition) and in the other condition there were views from different cameras (Edited condition) that provided close up views of the feet or face and upper body. We computed ISC maps for each condition, as well as created a map that showed the difference between the conditions. The results from the Unedited and Edited maps largely overlapped in the occipital and temporal cortices, although more voxels were found for the Edited map. The difference map revealed greater ISC for the Edited condition in the Postcentral Gyrus, Lingual Gyrus, Precentral Gyrus and Medial Frontal Gyrus, while the Unedited condition showed greater ISC in only the Superior Temporal Gyrus. These findings suggest that the visual changes associated with editing provide a source of correlation in maps obtained from edited film, and highlight the utility of using maps to evaluate the difference in ISC between conditions. © 2015. Source

Conde Montero E.,Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon | Fernandez Santos M.E.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Gregorio Maranon | Suarez Fernandez R.,Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas | Year: 2015

In recent years, the use of platelet-rich plasma has increased notably in a range of diseases and settings. Uses of these products now go beyond skin rejuvenation therapy in patients with facial ageing. Good outcomes for other dermatological indications such as skin ulcers and, more recently, alopecia have been reported in case series and controlled studies. However, these indications are not currently included in the labeling given that stronger scientific evidence is required to support their real benefits. With the increased use of these products, dermatologists need to become familiar with the underlying biological principles and able to critically assess the quality and outcomes of the studies of these products in different skin diseases. © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. Source

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