Janezic S.,National Laboratory for Health |
Marin M.,Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon |
Marin M.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Gregorio Maranon |
Martin A.,Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2015
Toxins A and B are the main virulence factors of Clostridium difficile and are the targets for molecular diagnostic tests. Here, we describe a new toxin A-negative, toxin B-positive, binary toxin CDT (Clostridium difficile transferase)-negative (A- B+ CDT-) toxinotype (XXXII) characterized by a variant type of pathogenicity locus (PaLoc) without tcdA and with atypical organization of the PaLoc integration site. © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Guinea J.,Complutense University of Madrid |
Guinea J.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Gregorio Maranon |
Guinea J.,CIBER ISCIII
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2014
Only five species account for 92% of cases of candidemia (Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei); however, their distribution varies in population-based studies conducted in different geographical areas. C. albicans is the most frequent species, but considerable differences are found between the number of cases caused by C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis. Studies from Northern Europe and the USA reported a high number of cases caused by C. glabrata, whereas studies from Spain and Brazil demonstrated a lower number of cases caused by C. glabrata and a higher number of cases attributed to C. parapsilosis. Globally, the frequency of C. albicans is decreasing, while that of C. glabrata and C. krusei is stable, and C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis are increasing. Patient characteristics and prior antifungal therapy also have a considerable influence on the distribution and frequency of Candida spp., regardless of the geographical area. C. albicans is more frequent in patients aged up to 18 years, the frequency of C. parapsilosis decreases with age, and C. glabrata is more common in the elderly. Finally, the presence of horizontal transmission of Candida spp. isolates (reported mainly in patients from the adult medical and post-surgical ICU, patients from oncology-haematology units, and neonates) can affect species distribution. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.
Soriano V.,Hospital Universitario La Paz |
Soriano V.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria la Paz |
Berenguer J.,Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon |
Berenguer J.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Gregorio Maranon
Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS | Year: 2015
Purpose of review HIV infection facilitates progression of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver fibrosis, thus increasing the risk of cirrhosis and decompensated liver disease. Although the primary target of HCV infection is the liver, extrahepatic manifestations related to HCV contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic hepatitis C. We review current data on extrahepatic comorbidities associated with HCV in HIV-infected patients. Recent findings A large proportion of individuals coinfected with HIV/HCV has extrahepatic manifestations that may be indirectly or directly related to HCV infection. Extrahepatic manifestations include autoimmune and/or lymphoproliferative disorders, and cardiovascular, renal, metabolic, and central nervous system manifestations. Chronic immune activation and systemic inflammation, hallmarks of both HIV and HCV infection, may contribute greatly to extrahepatic comorbidities of HCV in this population group. There is substantial evidence that successful antiviral therapy might reduce both hepatic and extrahepatic manifestations of HCV infection in patients coinfected with HIV/HCV. Summary A substantial burden of the morbidity and the mortality related to HCV in patients with or without HIV infection depends on its extrahepatic manifestations. HCV eradication following successful antiviral therapy might reduce both. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Vaquero J.J.,Charles III University of Madrid |
Vaquero J.J.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Gregorio Maranon |
Kinahan P.,University of Washington
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering | Year: 2015
Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is based on detecting two time-coincident high-energy photons from the emission of a positron-emitting radioisotope. The physics of the emission, and the detection of the coincident photons, give PET imaging unique capabilities for both very high sensitivity and accurate estimation of the in vivo concentration of the radiotracer. PET imaging has been widely adopted as an important clinical modality for oncological, cardiovascular, and neurological applications. PET imaging has also become an important tool in preclinical studies, particularly for investigating murine models of disease and other small-Animal models. However, there are several challenges to using PET imaging systems. These include the fundamental trade-offs between resolution and noise, the quantitative accuracy of the measurements, and integration with X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. In this article, we review how researchers and industry are addressing these challenges. © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Herbec A.,University of Glasgow |
Kauppi J.-P.,Aalto University |
Jola C.,University of Abertay Dundee |
Tohka J.,Charles III University of Madrid |
And 2 more authors.
Cortex | Year: 2015
Intersubject correlation (ISC) analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data provides insight into how continuous streams of sensory stimulation are processed by groups of observers. Although edited movies are frequently used as stimuli in ISC studies, there has been little direct examination of the effect of edits on the resulting ISC maps. In this study we showed 16 observers two audiovisual movie versions of the same dance. In one experimental condition there was a continuous view from a single camera (Unedited condition) and in the other condition there were views from different cameras (Edited condition) that provided close up views of the feet or face and upper body. We computed ISC maps for each condition, as well as created a map that showed the difference between the conditions. The results from the Unedited and Edited maps largely overlapped in the occipital and temporal cortices, although more voxels were found for the Edited map. The difference map revealed greater ISC for the Edited condition in the Postcentral Gyrus, Lingual Gyrus, Precentral Gyrus and Medial Frontal Gyrus, while the Unedited condition showed greater ISC in only the Superior Temporal Gyrus. These findings suggest that the visual changes associated with editing provide a source of correlation in maps obtained from edited film, and highlight the utility of using maps to evaluate the difference in ISC between conditions. © 2015.
Iglesias I.,University of Murcia |
Ripoll J.,Charles III University of Madrid |
Ripoll J.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Gregorio Maranon
Optics Express | Year: 2014
A new method to obtain the three-dimensional localization of fluorochrome distributions in micrometric samples is presented. It uses a microlens array coupled to the image port of a standard microscope to obtain tomographic data by a filtered back-projection algorithm. Scanning of the microlens array is proposed to obtain a dense data set for reconstruction. Simulation and experimental results are shown and the implications of this approach in fast 3D imaging are discussed. ©2014 Optical Society of America.
Guillem M.S.,Polytechnic University of Valencia |
Climent A.M.,Polytechnic University of Valencia |
Climent A.M.,Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon |
Millet J.,Polytechnic University of Valencia |
And 8 more authors.
Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology | Year: 2013
Background-Ablation of high-frequency sources in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is an effective therapy to restore sinus rhythm. However, this strategy may be ineffective in patients without a significant dominant frequency (DF) gradient. The aim of this study was to investigate whether sites with high-frequency activity in human AF can be identified noninvasively, which should help intervention planning and therapy. Methods and Results-In 14 patients with a history of AF, 67-lead body surface recordings were simultaneously registered with 15 endocardial electrograms from both atria including the highest DF site, which was predetermined by atrial-wide real-time frequency electroanatomical mapping. Power spectra of surface leads and the body surface location of the highest DF site were compared with intracardiac information. Highest DFs found on specific sites of the torso showed a significant correlation with DFs found in the nearest atrium (?=0.96 for right atrium and ?=0.92 for left atrium) and the DF gradient between them (?=0.93). The spatial distribution of power on the surface showed an inverse relationship between the frequencies versus the power spread area, consistent with localized fast sources as the AF mechanism with fibrillatory conduction elsewhere. Conclusions-Spectral analysis of body surface recordings during AF allows a noninvasive characterization of the global distribution of the atrial DFs and the identification of the atrium with the highest frequency, opening the possibility for improved noninvasive personalized diagnosis and treatment. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.
Cortejoso L.,Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon |
Cortejoso L.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Gregorio Maranon |
Lopez-Fernandez L.A.,Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon |
Lopez-Fernandez L.A.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Gregorio Maranon
Pharmacogenomics | Year: 2012
Chemotherapeutic agents used in colorectal cancer are frequently associated with severe adverse reactions that compromise the efficacy of treatment. Predicting toxicity could enable therapy to be tailored. Genetic variations have been associated with toxicity in patients treated with fluoropyrimidines (5-fluorouracil, capecitabine and tegafur), oxaliplatin, irinotecan and cetuximab. Complexity of treatment and variability in toxicity classifications make it difficult to compare studies. This article analyzes the association between toxicity and polymorphisms in DPYD, TYMS, MTHFR, ABCB1, UGT1A1, ERCC1, ERCC2, XRCC1, GSTT1 and GSTM1. In addition, the state-of-the-art and future perspectives are discussed. © 2012 Future Medicine Ltd.
Conde Montero E.,Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon |
Fernandez Santos M.E.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Gregorio Maranon |
Suarez Fernandez R.,Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas | Year: 2015
In recent years, the use of platelet-rich plasma has increased notably in a range of diseases and settings. Uses of these products now go beyond skin rejuvenation therapy in patients with facial ageing. Good outcomes for other dermatological indications such as skin ulcers and, more recently, alopecia have been reported in case series and controlled studies. However, these indications are not currently included in the labeling given that stronger scientific evidence is required to support their real benefits. With the increased use of these products, dermatologists need to become familiar with the underlying biological principles and able to critically assess the quality and outcomes of the studies of these products in different skin diseases. © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV.
Pion M.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Gregorio Maranon |
Jaramillo-Ruiz D.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Gregorio Maranon |
Martinez A.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Gregorio Maranon |
Munoz-Fernandez M.A.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Gregorio Maranon |
Correa-Rocha R.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Gregorio Maranon
AIDS | Year: 2013
Objective: Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an important role in infections modulating host immune responses and avoiding overreactive immunity. The mechanisms underlying their action in HIV-infected patients have not been well established. HIV can infect Treg, but little is known about the effects of the infection on Treg phenotype and function. The objective of this study was to investigate whether in-vitro HIV infection modifies the phenotype and suppressive capacity of Treg cells. Design: Because Treg cells are a subset of CD4+ T cells, HIV infection could produce alterations in the phenotype and methylation pattern of Treg disturbing the functionality of these cells. Methods: Isolated Treg cells from healthy volunteers were cultured in the presence of HIV-1, and phenotype, methylation pattern of FOXP3 locus, cytokine secretion profile and suppressive function of infected Treg were analysed in comparison with noninfected Treg. Results: We demonstrate that HIV-1 directly infects Treg and deregulates the function and the phenotype that define these cells. HIV infection downregulates the Foxp3 expression in Treg, which is followed by the loss of suppressive capacity and alterations in cytokine secretion pattern, with decreased production of transforming growth factorbeta (TGF-β) and an increased production of interleukin (IL)-4. Foxp3 downregulation in HIV-infected Treg was related to an increase in the expression of DNA methyltransferase3b (DNMT3b) associated with higher methylation of CpG sites in the FOXP3 locus. Conclusion: These findings are pivotal to our understanding of the role of Treg in HIV infection and indicate that regulatory function could be seriously impaired in HIVinfected patients contributing to the immune hyperactivation. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.