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Raisanen A.,Aino Active | Eklund J.,Aino Active | Calvet J.-H.,Impeto Medical | Tuomilehto J.,Danube University Krems | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2014

Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) and metabolic disorders. VO2max is the best method to assess cardio-respiratory fitness level but it is poorly adopted in clinical practice. Sudomotor dysfunction may develop early in metabolic diseases. This study aimed at comparing established CV risk evaluation techniques with SUDOSCAN; a quick and non-invasive method to assess sudomotor function. A questionnaire was filled-in; physical examination and VO2max estimation using a maximal test on a bicycle ergometer were performed on active Finish workers. Hand and foot electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) were measured to assess sudomotor function. Subjects with the lowest fitness level were involved in a 12 month training program with recording of their weekly physical activity and a final fitness level evaluation. Significant differences in BMI; waist and body fat were seen according to SUDOSCAN risk score classification. Correlation between the risk score and estimated VO2max was r = -0.57, p < 0.0001 for women and -0.48, p < 0.0001 for men. A significant increase in estimated VO2max, in hand and foot ESC and in risk score was observed after lifestyle intervention and was more important in subjects with the highest weekly activity. SUDOSCAN could be used to assess cardio-metabolic disease risk status in a working population and to follow individual lifestyle interventions. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Rautio N.,University of Oulu | Jokelainen J.,University of Oulu | Oksa H.,Pirkanmaa Hospital District | Saaristo T.,Pirkanmaa Hospital District | And 11 more authors.
Diabetic Medicine | Year: 2015

Aim: To examine changes in glucose metabolism (fasting and 2-h glucose) during follow-up in people with impaired fasting glucose in comparison with changes in people with isolated impaired glucose tolerance, people with impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance combined and people with screening-detected Type 2 diabetes at baseline, among those who participated in a diabetes prevention programme conducted in Finland. Methods: A total of 10 149 people at high risk of Type 2 diabetes took part in baseline examination. Of 5351 individuals with follow-up ≥ 9 months, 1727 had impaired glucose metabolism at baseline and completed at least one lifestyle intervention visit. Most of them (94.6%) were overweight/ obese. Results: Fasting glucose decreased during follow-up among overweight/obese people in the combined impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance group (P = 0.044), as did 2-h glucose in people in the isolated impaired glucose tolerance group (P = 0.0014) after adjustment for age, sex, medication and weight at baseline, follow-up time and changes in weight, physical activity and diet. When comparing changes in glucose metabolism among people with different degrees of glucose metabolism impairment, fasting glucose concentration was found to have increased in those with isolated impaired glucose tolerance (0.12 mmol/l, 95% Cl 0.05 to 0.19) and it decreased to a greater extent in those with screening-detected Type 2 diabetes (-0.54 mmol/l, 95% Cl -0.69 to -0.39) compared with those with impaired fasting glucose (-0.21 mmol/l, 95% Cl -0.27 to -0.15). Furthermore, 2-h glucose concentration decreased in the isolated impaired glucose tolerance group (-0.82 mmol/l, 95% Cl -1.04 to -0.60), in the combined impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance group (-0.82 mmol/l, 95% Cl -1.07 to -0.58) and in the screening-detected Type 2 diabetes group (-1.52, 95% Cl -1.96 to -1.08) compared with those in the impaired fasting glucose group (0.26 mmol/l, 95% Cl 0.10 to 0.43). Results were statistically significant even after adjustment for covariates (P < 0.001 in all models). Conclusions: Changes in glucose metabolism differ in people with impaired fasting glucose from those in people with isolated impaired glucose tolerance, people with impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance combined and people with screening-detected Type 2 diabetes. © 2015 Diabetes UK.

Luchsinger J.A.,Columbia University | Lehtisalo J.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | Lindstrom J.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | Ngandu T.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | And 10 more authors.
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice | Year: 2015

We studied cognition in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS), a trial of lifestyle intervention that prevented diabetes in persons with impaired glucose tolerance. Cognition was similar in the randomization arms 9 years after the intervention in 364 participants, suggesting that the intervention did not benefit cognition. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Takkunen M.J.,University of Eastern Finland | Schwab U.S.,University of Eastern Finland | Schwab U.S.,Kuopio University Hospital | de Mello V.D.F.,University of Eastern Finland | And 9 more authors.
European Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2016

Purpose: To examine the longitudinal associations of serum fatty acid composition with type 2 diabetes, insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity over several years. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study derived from the randomized Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Total serum fatty acid composition was measured using gas chromatography in 407 overweight, middle-aged people with impaired glucose tolerance at baseline (1993–1998) and annually during the intervention period (1994–2000). Longitudinal associations of 20 fatty acids and three desaturase activities (Δ5 (20:4n-6/20:3n-6, D5D), Δ6 (18:3n-6/18:2n-6, D6D), stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (16:1n-7/16:0, SCD-1)) with type 2 diabetes incidence, and estimates of insulin sensitivity (Matsuda), secretion (ratio of insulin and glucose concentrations) and β-cell function (disposition index) by an oral glucose tolerance test were analyzed using Cox regression and linear mixed models. We validated estimated D5D and D6D using a known FADS1 gene variant, rs174550. Results: The baseline proportions of 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, and D5D were associated with lower incidence of type 2 diabetes during a median follow-up of 11 years (HR per 1SD: 0.72, 0.74, 0.73, 0.78, respectively, P ≤ 0.01). These long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and D5D were associated with higher insulin sensitivity in subsequent years but not with disposition index. Saturated, monounsaturated and trans fatty acids and 18:3n-3, 18:2n-6, SCD-1 and D6D were inconsistently associated with type 2 diabetes or related traits. Conclusions: Serum long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and D5D predicted lower type 2 diabetes incidence in people at a high risk of diabetes attending to an intervention study; a putative mechanism behind these associations was higher insulin sensitivity. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Katoh S.,Jikei University School of Medicine | Peltonen M.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | Wada T.,Jikei University School of Medicine | Zeniya M.,Jikei University School of Medicine | And 6 more authors.
Journal of International Medical Research | Year: 2014

Objectives: To examine the association between glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and fatty liver markers. Methods: This cross-sectional analysis stratified subjects into quintiles based on HbA1c. Fatty liver using ultrasonography scores (FLUS) were assigned as follows: 2 points, moderate or severe fatty liver; 1 point, mild fatty liver; and 0 points, normal liver. Subjects with viral hepatitis, alcohol intake >175 g/week or receiving hypoglycaemic treatment were excluded. Results: The study included 5384 subjects. Serum cholinesterase (ChE) and FLUS showed a significant graded increase with increasing HbA1c. In linear regression analysis stratified by body mass index (BMI) and age, ChE and FLUS were significantly associated with lower (1+2) and higher (3+4+5) HbA1c quintiles, respectively, independent of BMI and age. Conclusions: The findings show that both ChE and FLUS are significantly correlated with HbA1c, independent of BMI and age. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

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