Santa María del Llano, Mexico
Santa María del Llano, Mexico

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Oberbauer A.M.,University of California at Davis | Berry S.L.,University of California at Davis | Belanger J.M.,University of California at Davis | McGoldrick R.M.,University of California at Davis | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2013

Lameness and hoof health affect dairy cows as an animal welfare issue, in decreased milk production, and in premature culling. Selection schemes for dairy cattle focus on sire contribution to milk production, with little consideration of the cow's physical structure or disease probability. On 3 commercial California dairies, 6 phenotypic binary hoof traits that contribute to lameness were recorded: white line disease, sole ulcer, other claw horn lesions, foot rot (interdigital phlegmon), foot warts (digital dermatitis), and other lesions. Monthly lactation records were collected from December 2006 to April 2009 with weekly observations of hoof lesions for lame and dry cows. In addition to hoof lesion information, data on cows (n=5,043) included parentage, birth date, freshening date, lactation number, and date of lameness diagnosis. The prevalence of hoof lesions ranged from a low of 2.2% (foot rot) to a high of 17.1% (foot warts). The farm environment increased the odds ratio depending upon the lesion. Lameness was more common in early lactation and as lactation number increased. Using a threshold model, heritabilities and repeatabilities were estimated for each binary trait. The heritability for risk varied by lesion, with the higher estimates being 0.40 (95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.67) for digital dermatitis and 0.30 (95% confidence interval: 0.08-0.63) for sole ulcer. Including terms to account for cow productivity on either a 305-d mature-equivalent basis or a per-lactation basis had minimal effect on the heritability estimates, suggesting that selection for hoof health is not correlated with response to selection for greater milk production and that improvement could be made for both traits. The genetic component lends support for further genetic studies to identify loci contributing to some of the lesion phenotypes such as foot warts or sole ulcers, 2 of the top 3 causes of lameness in dairy cattle. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association.


Aragon-Gastelum J.L.,San Luis Potosí Institute of Scientific Research and Technology | Flores J.,San Luis Potosí Institute of Scientific Research and Technology | Yanez-Espinosa L.,Institute Investigacion Of Zonas Deserticas | Badano E.,San Luis Potosí Institute of Scientific Research and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Flora: Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants | Year: 2014

The responses of desert plants to climate warming have been poorly assessed, perhaps due to the overall expectation that desert vegetation will expand as a consequence of this component of climate change. However, determining what plant species will tolerate the expected increase in temperature is a question that remains unanswered. The Chihuahuan Desert is the largest warm desert of North America, and predictive models of climate change indicate that summer temperatures in this desert will increase by 1-2°C in the next decade. This study experimentally assessed the performance of an endangered cacti species from the Chihuahuan Desert under simulated warming conditions. Hexagonal open top-chambers (OTCs) were used to simulate the effects of global warming on five-years-old individuals of the specially protected species Echinocactus platyacanthus. Temperature was 1.9°C higher in open top-chambers than in control plots. In contrast, relative humidity was 3.1% higher in control plots than in open top-chambers. E. platyacanthus showed 100% survival for 14 weeks in both OTC and control plots. However, induced warming negatively affected the photosynthetic performance of this species. Cacti located within OTCs displayed lower maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), effective quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII), and electron transport rate (ETR) values, but higher non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) values, than cacti from control plots. This is the first study focused on the potential impact of climate warming on survival and photosynthetic performance of young individuals of a succulent species from American deserts. Induced warming negatively affected the photosynthetic performance of young E. platyacanthus, but it also increased non-photochemical quenching, a mechanism for avoiding photoinhibition. © 2014 Elsevier GmbH.


Rendon-Huerta J.A.,Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi | Pinos-Rodriguez J.M.,Institute Investigacion Of Zonas Deserticas | Garcia-Lopez J.C.,Institute Investigacion Of Zonas Deserticas | Kebreab E.,University of California at Davis
Animal Production Science | Year: 2014

The objective of the present work was to estimate and assess trends in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), from dairy cows in Mexico from the base year of 1970 to 2010. Empirical and mechanistic models were used to estimate enteric methane emissions based on chemical composition of diets. Methane from manure was calculated using Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) and US Environmental Protection Agency recommended equations. N2O emission was calculated according to IPCC recommendations. Compared with the 1970s, current management practices using modern dairy cows increased feed conversion efficiency 32% and milk yield 62%. GHG emission intensity (i.e. emissions per unit of product) was reduced 30%, 25% and 30% for CH4, N2O and total emissions, respectively. The study showed that although GHG emissions in absolute terms increased in the past 40 years, emission intensity decreased due to higher level of production. This trend is likely to continue in the future, assuming milk production follows the same increasing trend as in other countries in North America. © 2014 CSIRO.


Juarez-Flores B.I.,Institute Investigacion Of Zonas Deserticas | Pinos-Rodriguez J.M.,Institute Investigacion Of Zonas Deserticas | Aguirre-Rivera J.R.,Institute Investigacion Of Zonas Deserticas | Delgado-Portales R.E.,Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi
African Journal of Microbiology Research | Year: 2011

The effects of fructans of Cichorium intybus, Helianthus tuberosus and Agave angustifolia spp. tequilana were evaluated on in vitro growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium lactis. Fructan concentrations were 0, 7, 14 or 21 g/L of man rogosa sharpe broth. The pH values and optic density at 600 nm (OD 600) were measured. Broths were inoculated and incubated at 35°C for 48 h. A complete randomized design was used with a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments: fructans (C. intybus, A. angustifolia spp. tequilana, H. tuberosus) and doses (0, 7, 14 or 21 g/L). For all bacteria, pH values quadratically decreased as fructan doses increased. Contrarily, OD 600 values quadratically increased as fructan doses rose. In L. acidophilus, the pH values of the medium with fructans from C. intybus and H. tuberosus were lower and OD 600 values were higher than with A. angustifolia spp. tequilana fructans. In L. casei pH and OD 600 values were similar for all fructan sources. In B. lactis, H. tuberosus fructans induced lower pH and higher OD 600 values than C. intybus and A. angustifolia spp. tequilana fructans. Results indicated that fructans from A. angustifolia spp. tequilana, C. intybus and H. tuberosus increased growth of B. lactis, L. casei and L. acidophilus. Although bacteria had different affinities for fructans, the lowest polymerization value improved bacterial growth. © 2011 Academic Journals.


Godinez-Hernandez C.I.,Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi | Godinez-Hernandez C.I.,Institute Investigacion Of Zonas Deserticas | Aguirre-Rivera J.R.,Institute Investigacion Of Zonas Deserticas | Juarez-Flores B.I.,Institute Investigacion Of Zonas Deserticas | And 2 more authors.
Revista Chapingo, Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente | Year: 2015

Fructans are fructose polymers with major applications in the industry of functional food. Even though fructans from Agave angustifolia spp. tequilana are already being industrially produced and are beginning to gain some demand in the USA, for their extraction pineapple or the heart of the maguey (stem and leaf bases) with different stages of ripeness is still used, which affects the quality and results in more expensive production processes. This work describes an alternative method for the extraction of fructans from Agave salmiana stems, resulting in simpler processes and facilitates a natural or organic collection. The absolute and relative yields of the fructan concentrate (FC) refer both to the stem and to the head of the maguey, as well as their quality through the high performance liquid chromatographic analysis (HPLC). The yield of FC (95 % DM dry material) from fresh stems was 21 % and almost 80 % from dry stems. The humidity free FC is comprised of about 80 % fructans and the rest by trisaccharides (around 9.5 %), ashes (5 %), sucrose (1 %) and sapogenins (0.85 %); glucose and fructose quantities were not detectable (< 0.002 %).


Lara-Juarez P.,Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi | Castillo-Lara P.,Institute Investigacion Of Zonas Deserticas | Tristan-Patino F.D.M.,Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi | Rendon-Huerta J.A.,UASLP | Aguirre-Rivera J.R.,Institute Investigacion Of Zonas Deserticas
Revista Chapingo, Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente | Year: 2016

The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of rangeland condition on the nest density of escamoles ant (Liometopum apiculatum) in three different range sites, all within a single (escamoles) collecting area divided into two contrasting use and property regimes, communal and private, in the Municipality of Charcas, San Luis Potosi, Mexico. In order to measure the vegetation, a point-centered quarter method along transects was used; in every quadrant the distance from the point to the closest plant was measured for each vegetation stratum, while the distance to the closest nest (if existing) was also recorded. The species recorded were grouped according to their forage value as desirable, less desirable and undesirable, and using their density and volumetric biomass estimations, these groups were compared through a tabular and descriptive statistical analysis. The soil surface state was evaluated with the line intercept method, in its proportion of live and dead (mulch) basal cover, bare soil, stones, ant trails and feces. The highest density of ant nests (14·ha-1) was recorded in the favorable site of the ranch (best rangeland condition). Marked differences were found in nest density between adjacent rangeland sites, which in turn were severely altered by the condition of these rangelands. © 2016 Coordinación de Revistas Institucionales.


Pinos-Rodriguez J.M.,Institute Investigacion Of Zonas Deserticas | Garcia-Lopez J.C.,Institute Investigacion Of Zonas Deserticas | Aguirre-Rivera J.R.,Institute Investigacion Of Zonas Deserticas | Reyes-Hernandez H.,Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi
Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems | Year: 2013

A community mapping procedure was developed to identify and characterize communal land area used for a traditional goat production system. Participatory cartography indicated that producers have good knowledge of their territory; more than 80% of the spatial distribution and localization of the elements and shapes present in the community map agreed with the map constructed with GIS. All flocks were mainly grazed on communal rangelands where the most important native forage plants were Opuntia spp. Yucca filifera, Condalia mexicana, Dalea spp. and Euphorbia cinerasiens, and corn stover the main crop by-product supplement used during dry season.


Paiz R.C.,Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi | Juarez-Flores B.I.,Institute Investigacion Of Zonas Deserticas | Rivera J.R.A.,Institute Investigacion Of Zonas Deserticas | Ortega N.C.C.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research | Year: 2010

The anti-diabetic effect traditionally attributed to the mesocarpium and cladode of Opuntia joconostle was assessed experimentally in male wistar rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes (40 mg/kg bodyweight). Groups of six diabetic and six healthy rats were dosed with either water or aqueous extracts of mesocarpium, cladode or a 50:50 mixture of both. The dose, defined through a screening experiment, was 100 mg/kg bodyweight of the freeze-dried aqueous extract, administered orally by esophageal cannula for 12 weeks. Variables assessed at weekly intervals were: blood levels of cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins (HDL), glucose and triglycerides. Total cholesterol and HDL levels were statistically similar among diabetic and healthy animals. A reduction (p < 0.001) in glucose concentration was observed in both healthy and diabetic rats dosed with the three O. joconostle supplements; this effect was most evident with the mesocarpium (72%). Triglycerides decreased (p < 0.001) only in healthy rats. These findings reveal that O. joconostle possesses a glucose- and lipidlowering effect in both healthy and diabetes-induced rats; this suggests that the frequent consumption of O. joconostle by humans in the diet may contribute to prevent and control the complications associated with type-2 diabetes mellitus. © 2010 Academic Journals.


Lopez-Palacios C.,Colegio de Mexico | Pena-Valdivia C.B.,Colegio de Mexico | Rodriguez-Hernandez A.I.,Institute Ciencias Agropecuarias | Reyes-Aguero J.A.,Institute Investigacion Of Zonas Deserticas
Plant Foods for Human Nutrition | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to quantify the content of polysaccharides of edible tender cladodes (nopalitos) of three species of Opuntia and to evaluate the rheological flow behavior of isolated polysaccharides. A completely randomized experimental design was used to characterize a wild (O. streptacantha), a semidomesticated (O. megacantha) and a domesticated (O. ficus-indica) species. Mucilage content was higher (4.93 to 12.43 g 100 g−1 dry matter), tightly bound hemicelluloses were lower (3.32 to 1.81 g 100 g−1 dry matter) and pectins and loosely bound hemicelluloses were not different in wild than in domesticated species. Aqueous solution/suspensions of mucilage, pectins, hemicellulose and cellulose of all species showed non-Newtonian behavior under simple shear flow. The flow behavior of the structural polysaccharides was well described by the Ostwald de-Waele model. Pectins and mucilages exhibited the highest consistency indexes (K values ranged from 0.075 to 0.177 Pasn) with a moderated shear-thinning behavior (n values ranged from 0.53 to 0.67). Cellulose dispersions exhibited the most shear-thinning behavior (n values ranged from 0.17 to 0.41) and hemicelluloses showed a tendency to Newtonian flow (n values ranged from 0.82 to 0.97). The rheological flow properties of these polysaccharides may be useful to improve the textural and sensory qualities of some foods and pharmaceutical materials. Moreover, they can emerge as functional ingredients mainly due to the nutraceutical properties that have been attributed to nopalitos. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York


PubMed | Institute Ciencias Agropecuarias, Colegio de Mexico and Institute Investigacion Of Zonas Deserticas
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Plant foods for human nutrition (Dordrecht, Netherlands) | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to quantify the content of polysaccharides of edible tender cladodes (nopalitos) of three species of Opuntia and to evaluate the rheological flow behavior of isolated polysaccharides. A completely randomized experimental design was used to characterize a wild (O. streptacantha), a semidomesticated (O. megacantha) and a domesticated (O. ficus-indica) species. Mucilage content was higher (4.93 to 12.43g 100g

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