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Villanueva C.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Argente J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Argente J.,Institute Investigacion La Princesa | Argente J.,CIBER ISCIII
Hormone Research in Paediatrics

Puberty is a complex maturation process that begins during fetal life and persists until the acquisition of reproduction function. The fundamental event that activates puberty occurs in the hypothalamus. A complex neuron network stimulates GnRH secretion, which stimulates pituitary gonadotropin secretion and then gonadal steroid secretion. Pubertal delay is defined as the presentation of clinical signs of puberty 2-2.5 SD later than in the normal population. Three major groups of etiopathogeneses are described: (1) hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, (2) hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and (3) constitutional delay of puberty (CDP) - The most common cause of delayed puberty in boys. The differential diagnosis between CDP and isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism remains difficult. Mechanisms of pubertal timing are now better understood and genetic or epigenetic causes can explain some pubertal delays. However, there are still unexplained mechanisms. Treatment of delayed puberty is necessary to ensure full pubertal development for the adolescent and in case of hypogonadism, to restore fertility. Finally, precocious diagnosis of hypogonadism is primordial but can be difficult during childhood and in cases of partial hypogonadism. The study of genetic pubertal diseases or of different animal models could help to discover new diagnostic or therapeutic tools. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Bautista F.,Hospital Infantil Universitario Nino Jesus | Gallego S.,Hospital Vall DHebron | Canete A.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Mora J.,Hospital Sant Joan de Deu | And 16 more authors.
Clinical and Translational Oncology

Purpose: Despite numerous advances, survival remains dismal for children and adolescents with poor prognosis cancers or those who relapse or are refractory to first line treatment. There is, therefore, a major unmet need for new drugs. Recent advances in the knowledge of molecular tumor biology open the door to more adapted therapies according to individual alterations. Promising results in the adult anticancer drug development have not yet been translated into clinical practice. We report the activity in early pediatric oncology trials in Spain. Methods: All members of the Spanish Society of Pediatric Hematology Oncology (SEHOP) were contacted to obtain information about early trials open in each center. Results: 22 phase I and II trials were open as of May 2015: 15 for solid tumors (68 %) and 7 for hematological malignancies (32 %). Fourteen (64 %) were industry sponsored. Since 2010, four centers have joined the Innovative Therapies For Children With Cancer, an international consortium whose aim is developing novel therapies for pediatric cancers. A substantial number of studies have opened in these 5 years, improving the portfolio of trials for children. Results of recently closed trials show the contribution of Spanish investigators, the introduction of molecularly targeted agents and their benefits. Conclusions: Clinical trials are the way to evaluate new drugs, avoiding the use of off-label drugs that carry significant risks. The Spanish pediatric oncology community through the SEHOP is committed to develop and participate in collaborative academic trials, to favor the advancement and optimization of existing therapies in pediatric cancer. © 2015 Federación de Sociedades Españolas de Oncología (FESEO) Source

Argente J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Argente J.,Institute Investigacion La Princesa | Argente J.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Fisiopatologia Of La Obesidad tricion | Flores R.,University Pompeu Fabra | And 20 more authors.
EMBO Molecular Medicine

The molecular basis of a significant number of cases of isolated growth hormone deficiency remains unknown. We describe three sisters affected with severe isolated growth hormone deficiency and pituitary hypoplasia caused by biallelic mutations in the RNPC3 gene, which codes for a minor spliceosome protein required for U11/U12 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) formation and splicing of U12-type introns. We found anomalies in U11/U12 di-snRNP formation and in splicing of multiple U12-type introns in patient cells. Defective transcripts include preprohormone convertases SPCS2 and SPCS3 and actin-related ARPC5L genes, which are candidates for the somatotroph-restricted dysfunction. The reported novel mechanism for familial growth hormone deficiency demonstrates that general mRNA processing defects of the minor spliceosome can lead to very narrow tissue-specific consequences. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Chowen J.A.,Hospital Infantil Universitario Nino Jesus | Chowen J.A.,Institute Investigacion La Princesa | Chowen J.A.,Institute Salud Carlos III | Argente J.,Hospital Infantil Universitario Nino Jesus | And 4 more authors.

Glial cells, which constitute more than 50% of the mass of the central nervous system and greatly outnumber neurons, are at the vanguard of neuroendocrine research in metabolic control and obesity. Historically relegated to roles of structural support and protection, diverse functions have been gradually attributed to this heterogeneous class of cells with their protagonism in crescendo in all areas of neuroscience during the past decade. However, this dramatic increase in attention bestowed upon glial cells has also emphasized our vast lack of knowledge concerningmanyaspects of their physiological functions, let alone their participation in numerous pathologies. This minireview focuses on the recent advances in our understanding of how glial cells participate in the physiological regulation of appetite and systemic metabolism as well as their role in the pathophysiological response to poor nutrition and secondary complications associated with obesity. Moreover, we highlight some of the existing lagoons of knowledge in this increasingly important area of investigation. Source

Lopez-Villar E.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Lopez-Villar E.,Hospital Infantil Universitario Nino Jesus | Martos-Moreno G.A.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Martos-Moreno G.A.,Institute Investigacion La Princesa | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine

The incidence of obesity and type diabetes 2 has increased dramatically resulting in an increased interest in its biomedical relevance. However, the mechanisms that trigger the development of diabetes type 2 in obese patients remain largely unknown. Scientific, clinical and pharmaceutical communities are dedicating vast resources to unravel this issue by applying different omics tools. During the last decade, the advances in proteomic approaches and the Human Proteome Organization have opened and are opening a new door that may be helpful in the identification of patients at risk and to improve current therapies. Here, we briefly review some of the advances in our understanding of type 2 diabetes that have occurred through the application of proteomics. We also review, in detail, the current improvements in proteomic methodologies and new strategies that could be employed to further advance our understanding of this pathology. By applying these new proteomic advances, novel therapeutic and/or diagnostic protein targets will be discovered in the obesity/Type 2 diabetes area. © 2015 The Authors. Source

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