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Gonzalez-Munoz G.C.,Institute Quimica Medica | Arce M.P.,Institute Quimica Medica | Lopez B.,Institute Quimica Medica | Perez C.,Institute Quimica Medica | And 7 more authors.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry

From an in-house library of compounds, five phenothiazines and one dibenzothiadiazepine were selected to be tested in neuroprotective and cholinergic assays. Three of them, derived from the N-alkylphenothiazine, the N-acylaminophenothiazine, and the 1,4,5-dibenzo[b,f]thiadiazepine system, protected human neuroblastoma cells against oxidative stress generated by both exogenous and mitochondrial free radicals. They could also penetrate the CNS, according to an in vitro blood-brain barrier model, and an N- acylaminophenothiazine derivative behaved as a selective inhibitor of butyrylcholinesterase. Free radical capture and/or promotion of antioxidant protein biosynthesis are mechanisms that can be implicated in their neuroprotective actions. Due to their excellent pharmacological properties and the fact that they were not biologically explored in the past, one N-acylaminophenothiazine and one 1,4,5-dibenzo[b,f]thiadiazepine have been selected to develop two new series that are currently in progress. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved. Source

Sastre E.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Sastre E.,Institute Investigacion la Paz IdiPaz | Caracuel L.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Caracuel L.,Institute Investigacion la Paz IdiPaz | And 6 more authors.

Introduction: We analysed possible time-dependent changes in nitrergic perivascular innervation function from diabetic rats and mechanisms implicated. Materials and Methods: In endothelium-denuded mesenteric arteries from control and four- (4W) and eight-week (8W) streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats the vasoconstriction to EFS (electrical field stimulation) was analysed before and after preincubation with L-NAME. Neuronal NO release was analysed in the absence and presence of L-arginine, tetrahydrobiopterine (BH4) and Larginine plus BH4. Superoxide anion (O2 -), peroxynitrite (ONOO-) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured. Expressions of Cu-Zn SOD, nNOS, p-nNOS Ser1417, p-nNOS Ser847, and Arginase (Arg) I and II were analysed. Results: EFS response was enhanced at 4W, and to a lesser extent at 8W. L-NAME increased EFS response in control rats and at 8W, but not at 4W. NO release was decreased at 4W and restored at 8W. L-arginine or BH4 increased NO release at 4W, but not 8W. SOD activity and O2 - generation were increased at both 4W and 8W. ONOO- decreased at 4W while increased at 8W. Cu-Zn SOD, nNOS and p-NOS Ser1417 expressions remained unmodified at 4W and 8W, whereas p-nNOS Ser847 was increased at 4W. ArgI was overexpressed at 4W, remaining unmodified at 8W. ArgII expression was similar in all groups. Conclusions: Our results show a time-dependent effect of diabetes on neuronal NO release. At 4W, diabetes induced increased O2 - generation, nNOS uncoupling and overexpression of ArgI and p-nNOS Ser847, resulting in decreased NO release. At 8W, NO release was restored, involving normalisation of ArgI and p-nNOS Ser847 expressions. © 2016 Sastre et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Sastre E.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Sastre E.,Institute Investigacion la Paz IdiPaz | Caracuel L.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Caracuel L.,Institute Investigacion la Paz IdiPaz | And 5 more authors.

Objectives: We analyzed whether mast cell stabilization by either ketotifen or tranilast could alter either sympathetic or nitrergic innervation function in rat mesenteric arteries. Methods: Electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced contraction was analyzed in mesenteric segments from 6-month-old Wistar rats in three experimental groups: control, 3-hour ketotifen incubated (0.1 αmol/L), and 3-hour tranilast incubated (0.1 mmol/L). To assess the possible participation of nitrergic or sympathetic innervation, EFS contraction was analyzed in the presence of non-selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME (0.1 mmol/L), α-adrenergic receptor antagonist phentolamine (0.1 μ mol/L), or the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 1.46 mmol/L) Nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion (O2-) levels were measured, as were vasomotor responses to noradrenaline (NA) and to NO donor DEA-NO, in the presence and absence of 0.1 mmol/L tempol. Phosphorylated neuronal NOS (P-nNOS) expression was also analyzed Results: EFS-induced contraction was increased by ketotifen and decreased by tranilast. L-NAME increased the vasoconstrictor response to EFS only in control segments. The vasodilator response to DEA-NO was higher in ketotifen- and tranilast-incubated segments, while tempol increased vasodilator response to DEA-NO only in control segments. Both NO and O2- release, and P-nNOS expression were diminished by ketotifen and by tranilast treatment. The decrease in EFS-induced contraction produced by phentolamine was lower in tranilast-incubated segments. NA vasomotor response was decreased only by tranilast. The remnant vasoconstriction observed in control and ketotifen-incubated segments was abolished by 6-OHDA Conclusion: While both ketotifen and tranilast diminish nitrergic innervation function, only tranilast diminishes sympathetic innnervation function, thus they alter the vasoconstrictor response to EFS in opposing manners. © 2013 Sastre et al. Source

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