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Garcia R.A.,Institute Investigacion en Paleobiologia y Geologia | Garcia R.A.,CONICET | Salgado L.,Institute Investigacion en Paleobiologia y Geologia | Salgado L.,CONICET | And 13 more authors.
Ameghiniana | Year: 2015

Much of the current paleobiological knowledge on titanosaur sauropods was attained in just the last fifteen years, in particular that related to reproductive and developmental biology. Recent years have also seen progress on other poorly explored topics, such as pneumaticity, muscle architecture and locomotion, and endocast reconstruction and associated structures. Some titanosaurs laid numerous, relatively small Megaloolithidae eggs (with diameters ranging from 12 to 14 cm) in nests dug in the ground and, as known from the South American records, probably eggs of the multispherulitic morphotype. During ontogeny, certain titanosaurs displayed some variations in cranial morphology, some of them likely associated with the differing feeding habits between hatchlings and adults. The bone tissue of some adult titanosaurs was rapidly and cyclically deposited and shows a greater degree of remodeling than in other sauropods. Saltasaurines in particular show evidence of postcranial skeletal pneumaticity in both axial and appendicular skeleton, providing clues about soft tissue anatomy and the structure of the respiratory system. Titanosaurs, like all sauropods, were characterized by being fully quadrupedal, although some appendicular features and putative trackways indicate that their stance was not as columnar as in other sauropods. These anatomical peculiarities are significantly developed in saltasaurines, a derived group of titanosaurs. Compared with other sauropods, some titanosaurs seem to have had very poor olfaction but would have been capable of capturing sounds in a relatively wide range of high frequencies, although not to the extent of living birds.

Archuby F.M.,Institute Investigacion en Paleobiologia y Geologia | Adami M.,National University of La Plata | Martinelli J.C.,Macquarie University | Gordillo S.,CONICET | And 2 more authors.
Palaios | Year: 2015

The use of rocky intertidal assemblages in paleoecology and conservation paleobiology studies is limited because these environments have low preservation potential. Here, we evaluate the fidelity between living intertidal mussel bed communities (life assemblages or LAs) and mollusk shell accumulations (death assemblages or DAs) from the environmentally harsh Patagonian Atlantic Coast. LAs were sampled from rocky mid-intertidal and mussel-dominated habitats while DAs were collected from the high water mark at beaches in close proximity to the living intertidal community to assess live-dead mismatch at regional scales. DAs were restricted to the subset of species in the DAs that inhabit rocky intertidal habitats. A total of 37,193 mollusk specimens from 15 intertidal species were included in the analysis. Ten species were present in LAs, 14 in DAs, and nine were shared by LAs and DAs. DAs showed higher diversity, less dominance, and more rare species than LAs. Despite finding good agreement in species composition between DAs and LAs within the same region, smaller species are underrepresented, as shown by differences in size-frequency distributions. Our findings indicate that the composition of DAs is a result of the combined effects of spatial and temporal averaging, size-related biases, and biases related to low detectability of boring and vagile species in LAs. Thus, DAs do not accurately detect within-provincial latitudinal gradients in composition. However, DAs clearly capture differences between the Argentine-Magellanic Transition Zone and the Magellanic Province, indicating that DAs are informative tools at regional scales despite the environmental harshness to which they are subjected. © 2015, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

Guzman C.G.,University of Buenos Aires | Guzman C.G.,CONICET | Cristallini E.O.,University of Buenos Aires | Cristallini E.O.,CONICET | And 7 more authors.
Revista de la Asociacion Geologica Argentina | Year: 2011

Continuity and evolution in time of the horizontal stress direction in the Neuquen Basin area, derived from the analysis of recent borehole data and orientation of volcanic dykes measured in outcrop in the Cara Cura and Reyes Ranges is presented. The bitumen dykes along the Neuquén Basin were formed during Paleocene - Eocene in a context where the maximum stress was horizontal and had a NE. Within the analyzed volcanic dykes two major groups have been recognized, group i (NE orientation) and group ii (NNE orientation) and a secondary group iii (NW orientation). The age of these dykes is still not well established, but they were related to a Late Oligocene - Miocene magmatic event. Both for the volcanic and bitumen dykes a type i group (ENE-NE orientation) has been recognized, evidencing the maximum stress direction at the time they were formed. Beyond the uncertainties in the volcanic and bitumen dykes age, it is interpreted that during great part of Tertiary, the orientation of the horizontal maximum stress was NE. However, the breakout data shows that the actual horizontal maximum stress is a little different with a ENE mean direction. This change in the direction of stress is consistent with the change in the subduction vector produced between the Eocene and today.

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