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Introduction. Most of the stroke survivors do not recover the basal state of the affected upper limb, suffering from a severe disability which remains during the chronic phase of the illness. This has an extremely negative impact in the quality of life of these patients. Hence, neurorehabilitation strategies aim at the minimization of the sensorimotor dysfunctions associated to stroke, by promoting neuroplasticity in the central nervous system. Development. Brain reorganization can facilitate motor and functional recovery in stroke subjects. Nonetheless,after the insult, maladaptive neuroplastic changes can also happen, which may lead to the appearance of certain sensorimotor disorders such as spasticity. Noninvasive brain stimulation strategies, like transcranial direct current stimulation or transcranial magnetic stimulation, are widely used techniques that, when applied over the primary motor cortex, can modify neural networks excitability, as well as cognitive functions, both in healthy subjects and individuals with neurological disorders. Similarly, brain-machine-interface systems also have the potential to induce a brain reorganization by the contingent and simultaneous association between the brain activation and the peripheral stimulation. Conclusion. This review describes the positive effects of the previously mentioned neurorehabilitation strategies for the enhancement of cortical reorganization after stroke, and how they can be used to alleviate the symptoms of the spasticity syndrome. © 2016 Revista de Neurología. Source


Montijano E.,Centro Universitario Of La Defensa | Aragues R.,CNRS Pascal Institute | Sagues C.,Institute Investigacion En Ingenieria Of Aragon
IEEE Transactions on Robotics | Year: 2013

We address the data association problem of features that are observed by a robotic network. Every robot in the network has limited communication capabilities and can only exchange localmatches with its neighbors.We propose a distributed algorithm that takes these local matches and, by their propagation in the network, computes global correspondences. When the algorithm finishes, each robot knows the correspondences between its features and the features of all the other robots, even if they cannot directly communicate. The presence of spurious local correspondences may produce inconsistent global correspondences,which are association paths between features observed by the same robot. The contributions of this study are the propagation of the local matches and the detection and resolution of these inconsistencies. We formally prove that after executing the algorithm, all the robots finish with a data association that is free of inconsistencies.We provide a fully decentralized solution to the problem that is valid for any fixed communication topology and with bounded communications between the robots. Simulations and experimental results with real images show the performance of the method considering different features, matching functions, and robotic applications. © 2013 IEEE. Source


De Matias J.,University of Extremadura | Guerrero J.J.,Institute Investigacion En Ingenieria Of Aragon | Moreno J.,University of Extremadura | De Sanjose J.J.,University of Extremadura
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2010

Rock glacier is a rare case of study for 3D modelling. We use a stereo feature-based method and multi-view stereo reconstruction algorithms to get different types of cartography. The proposed method has been tested in a real rock glacier example (Veleta in Sierra Nevada, Spain) for producing maps with good results. This rock glacier is of high scientific interest because it is the southernmost active rock glacier in Europe and it has been analyzed every year since 2001. The research on the Veleta rock glacier is devoted to the study of its displacement and cartography through geodetic and photogrammetric techniques. Source


Pedro S.G.-D.,Biosensors | Puyol M.,Biosensors | Izquierdo D.,Institute Investigacion En Ingenieria Of Aragon | Salinas I.,Institute Investigacion En Ingenieria Of Aragon | And 2 more authors.
Nanoscale | Year: 2012

In this paper, a computer controlled microreactor to synthesize water soluble CdS and CdS/ZnS nanocrystals with in situ monitoring of the reaction progress is developed. It is based on ceramic tapes and the Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramics technology (LTCC). As well the microsystem set-up, the microreactor fluidic design has also been thoroughly optimized. The final device is based on a hydrodynamic focusing of the reagents followed by a three-dimensional micromixer. This generates monodispersed and stable CdS and core-shell CdS/ZnS nanocrystals of 4.5 and 4.2 nm, respectively, with reproducible optical properties in terms of fluorescence emission wavelengths, bandwidth, and quantum yields, which is a key requirement for their future analytical applications. The synthetic process is also controlled in real time with the integration of an optical detection system for absorbance and fluorescence measurements based on commercial miniaturized optical components. This makes possible the efficient managing of the hydrodynamic variables to obtain the desired colloidal suspension. As a result, a simple, economic, robust and portable microsystem for the well controlled synthesis of CdS and CdS/ZnS nanocrystals is presented. Moreover, the reaction takes place in aqueous medium, thus allowing the direct modular integration of this microreactor in specific analytical microsystems, which require the use of such quantum dots as labels. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


de Miguel D.,University of Zaragoza | de Miguel D.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Of Aragon Iss | Gallego-Lleyda A.,University of Zaragoza | Ayuso J.M.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Of Aragon Iss | And 16 more authors.
Recent Patents on Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery | Year: 2016

Background: Apo2-ligand/TRAIL, a member of the TNF cytokine superfamily capable of inducing apoptosis on tumor cells while sparing normal cells, is a promising anti-tumor agent. However, about 50% of human cancer are TRAIL resistant. Consequently, future TRAIL-based therapies will require the use of novel highly bioactive forms of TRAIL and/or the addition of sensitizing agents to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Recently, we demonstrated that artificial lipid nanoparticles coated with bioactive TRAIL (LUV-TRAIL) greatly improved TRAIL activity and were able to induce apoptosis in chemoresistant hematological tumor cells. Objective: In this study, we have tested LUV-TRAIL-pro-apoptotic potential in human breast cancer. Method: Comparative analysis of cytotoxicity induced by sTRAIL and LUV-TRAIL was performed using several human breast tumor cell lines with different sensitivity to TRAIL. In vivo anti-tumor activity of LUV-TRAIL was also studied using a xeno-graft tumor model. Results: LUV-TRAIL improved not only sTRAIL in vitro cytotoxicity in all breast tumor cell lines tested but also showed more anti-tumor activity than sTRAIL in an in vivo xeno-graft tumor model. On the other hand, the concomitant treatment of LUV-TRAIL with the sensitizing agent flavopiridol (FVP) induced a higher level of cell death in TRAIL-resistant cell lines. TRAIL-sensitization induced by FVP was mediated by DR5 up-regulation, and interestingly TRAIL-apoptotic signaling was completely shifted towards DR5 upon FVP treatment. LUV-TRAIL could especially take advantage of this DR5 up-regulation, while sTRAIL was not able. Conclusion: To date, no special attention had been paid to this aspect of FVP-induced TRAIL-sensitization, may be because sTRAIL used were not able to take advantage of this DR5 up-regulation. Hence, LUV-TRAIL could be a better choice than sTRAIL to be used in combination with anti-tumor drugs inducing DR5 over-expression, since LUV-TRAIL is especially effective activating this death-receptor. © 2016 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

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