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Carrero-Carralero C.,Institute Quimica Organica General CSIC | Ruiz-Aceituno L.,Institute Quimica Organica General CSIC | Ramos L.,Institute Quimica Organica General CSIC | Moreno F.J.,Institute Investigacion En Ciencias Of La Alimentacion Csic Uam | Sanz M.L.,Institute Quimica Organica General CSIC
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research

The use of room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) as green solvents is an emerging and innovative technology, which is quickly expanding in carbohydrate chemistry. However, information about solubility of low molecular weight carbohydrates (LMWC) in ILs is still scarce. This study provides new solubility data for several LMWC dissolved in methylimidazolium-based ILs. Different solubility values have been obtained for carbohydrates depending on their structure. In general, ketoses are more soluble than their corresponding aldoses, and trisaccharides are more soluble than mono- and disaccharides, although some exceptions have been observed depending on the tested IL. [BMIM][MeSO4] and [HMIM][Cl] acted both as solvent and as catalyst for dehydration of ketoses (fructose and tagatose) into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural at 318 K. These findings pointed out the potential of ILs as an interesting alternative solvent for new applications in applied carbohydrate chemistry. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source

Gomez-Cortes P.,Institute Investigacion En Ciencias Of La Alimentacion Csic Uam | Gallardo B.,University of Valladolid | Mantecon A.R.,Institute Ganaderia Of Montana Csic Ule | Juarez M.,Institute Investigacion En Ciencias Of La Alimentacion Csic Uam | And 2 more authors.
Meat Science

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing lactating ewe diets with extruded linseed on the fatty acid (FA) composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat depots of suckling lambs. Twenty-four pregnant Churra ewes were divided into two groups based on the milk production, age, body weight and parity, and assigned to one of two treatments. Each ewe of the Control treatment was supplemented with 70. g/day of FAs from a calcium soap of palm oil, while the other treatment group (Lin) was supplemented with 128. g/day of extruded linseed. All lambs were reared exclusively on milk and were slaughtered when they reached 11. kg live weight. FA profiles of ewe milk, lamb meat and subcutaneous adipose tissue were determined by GC. Lamb performance was not affected by the treatments. Muscle fat and adipose tissue from the Lin treatment showed higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The percentages of α-linolenic (C18:3 n.3), docosahexaenoic (C22:6 n. 3), vaccenic (trans-11 C18:1) and rumenic (cis-9, trans-11 C18:2) acids in both fat depots were higher in Lin than in Control suckling lambs. Furthermore, meat fat from Lin carcasses displayed a lower n. 6/n. 3 ratio than Control samples. Intramuscular depots clearly showed a greater content of PUFA, including cis-9, trans-11 C18:2, and a lower n. 6/n. 3 ratio than subcutaneous fat. The results from this study demonstrate that dietary extruded linseed supplementation of lactating ewes enhances the nutritional quality of suckling lamb fat depots such as intramuscular and subcutaneous fats. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Amigo-Benavent M.,Institute Investigacion En Ciencias Of La Alimentacion Csic Uam | Clemente A.,CSIC - Experimental Station of El Zaidin | Ferranti P.,University of Naples Federico II | Caira S.,University of Naples Federico II | Del Castillo M.D.,Institute Investigacion En Ciencias Of La Alimentacion Csic Uam
Food Chemistry

IgE-mediated allergy to soybean may be connected to an incomplete protein digestion causing an inappropriate immune response in the gut. The aim of this study was to gain insight on the digestibility and immunoreactivity of β-conglycinin and its deglycosylated form. To achieve this goal both proteins were digested mimicking gastrointestinal physiological conditions. Digests were characterised by SDS-PAGE, MALDI-TOF-MS and immunological assays. Data on IgG binding western blot provided key information related to the composition of the digests indicating that whereas deglycosylated β-conglycinin was completely removed by gastrointestinal digestion, α and β subunits of β-conglycinin glycoprotein partially survive the process of digestion. Such differential digestive behaviour might be influenced by glycan moieties, at least to some extent, and should be an additional factor to be considered on its potential allergenicity. Results also support the existence of linear epitopes in the three subunits (α, α′, and β) of both protein forms. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Criado M.,University Miguel Hernandez | Balsera B.,Institute Quimica Medica | Mulet J.,University Miguel Hernandez | Sala S.,University Miguel Hernandez | And 8 more authors.
Future Medicinal Chemistry

Nicotine acethylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play critical roles in cognitive processes, neuroprotection and inflammation. Results: According to their substituents, 1,3-diphenylpropan-1-one derivatives act as α7 nAChRs negative allosteric modulators (NAM, OMe) or Type I positive allosteric modulators (PAMs, OH). Compounds 7 and 31 were the most effective (989 and 666% enhancement of ACh-induced currents) and potent (EC50: 12.9 and 6.85 μM) PAMs. They exhibited strong radical scavenging values. Compound 31, selective over other neuronal nAChR subtypes and with acceptable pharmacokinetic profile, showed antinociceptive effects in a model of inflammatory pain. Conclusion: Compound 31 is a novel, potent and selective α7 nAChR PAM, displaying antioxidant and analgesic activities. The 1,3-diphenylpropan-1-one scaffold could be the base toward more advanced type I PAMs for the treatment of nAChR-mediated diseases. © 2016 Future Science Ltd. Source

Bichi E.,Institute Ganaderia Of Montana Csic Ule | Bichi E.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Toral P.G.,Institute Ganaderia Of Montana Csic Ule | Hervas G.,Institute Ganaderia Of Montana Csic Ule | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science

This study was conducted in lactating ewes to examine the involvement of {increment} 9-desaturase in mammary lipogenesis, especially in the endogenous synthesis of cis-9, trans-11 18:2 and cis-9 18:1, because no information on this matter was available for dairy sheep. With this aim, 6 Assaf ewes were monitored in a 15-d experiment, which included a 5-d pretreatment period, a 5-d treatment period, and a 5-d posttreatment period. During the treatment period, ewes received 0.5g/d of sterculic acid (a cyclopropene fatty acid that inhibits {increment} 9-desaturase), delivered intravenously in 4 equal doses at 6-h intervals. Animals were fed pasture to supply mainly α-linolenic acid and minimize the amount of milk cis-9, trans-11 18:2 of ruminal origin. Sterculic acid administration was calculated to inhibit {increment} 9-desaturase by 70% based on the milk content of cis-9 14:1. This inhibition resulted in decreases in the milk content of the enzyme products (e.g., cis-9 10:1, cis-9 14:1, cis-9 16:1, cis-9 18:1, and cis-9, trans-11 18:2) and increases in its substrates (e.g., 14:0, 18:0, and trans-11 18:1), as well as in reductions in the desaturase indexes. Some other milk fatty acids, further to previously reported products or substrates of {increment} 9-desaturase (e.g., cis-15 18:1 and cis-9, cis-15 18:2, or trans-11, trans-15 18:2, and cis-9, trans-11, trans-15 18:3), were also affected by sterculic acid administration. Endogenous synthesis was the major source of cis-9 18:1 and cis-9, trans-11 18:2, accounting for 63 and 74% of its content in milk fat, respectively. To our knowledge, the present study provides the first estimates of endogenous synthesis of these 2 bioactive fatty acids in ovine milk fat. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Source

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