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Lopez Carreras N.,Complutense University of Madrid | Miguel M.,Institute Investigacion En Ciencias Of Alimentacion Cial | Aleixandre A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Nutricion Clinica y Dietetica Hospitalaria | Year: 2012

Food components can have biological activity and healthy properties. Some of them, produced by plants, are named phytochemicals. The diversity of phytochemicals is amazing and this term refers in fact to a wide variety of compounds. Some of them, biosynthesized from isoprene, are named terpenes, and an important group of biciclic monoterpenes, derived from geraniol, are named iridoids. Iridoids can have open structures (secoiridoids) or closed structures (really iridoids) and they appear usua lly as heteroside compounds, in particular as glycosides. They have beneficial effects on liver and bi - liary function. Moreover, they have also demonstrated anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-carcinogenic and antiviral activity, and they can be used as antidote in mushroom intoxications, in particular, those caused by Amanita type. Iridoids are present in particular in plants such as olive, harpagophytum, the valerian plant, the gentian plant and the ash tree. All these plants have been reported to be used as traditional medicine in many cultures. Nowadays, their leaves, tubercles, roots, seeds, and extracts are also considered important for pharmacology, and some of their active compounds have been identified. This review refers to the origin and biosynthetic pathways of iridoids. It des - cribes the characteristics and properties of the plants mentioned above, and it also mentions the principal iridoids isolated from them.


Kosinska A.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Karamac M.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Estrella I.,Institute Ciencia Y Tecnologia Of Alimentos Y Nutricion Ictan | Hernandez T.,Institute Ciencia Y Tecnologia Of Alimentos Y Nutricion Ictan | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Avocado processing by the food and cosmetic industries yields a considerable amount of phenolic-rich byproduct such as peels and seeds. Utilization of these byproducts would be favorable from an economic point of view. Methanolic (80%) extracts obtained from lyophilized ground peels and seeds of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) of the Hass and Shepard varieties were characterized for their phenolic compound profiles using the HPLC-PAD technique. The structures of the identified compounds were subsequently unambiguously confirmed by ESI-MS. Compositional analysis revealed that the extracts contained four polyphenolic classes: flavanol monomers, proanthocyanidins, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonol glycosides. The presence of 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3-O-p-coumaroylquinic acid, and procyanidin A trimers was identified in seeds of both varieties. Intervarietal differences were apparent in the phenolic compound profiles of peels. Peels of the Shepard variety were devoid of (+)-catechin and procyanidin dimers, which were present in the peels of the Hass variety. Peels of both varieties contained 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin derivatives. The differences in the phenolic profiles between varietals were also apparent in the different antioxidant activity of the extracts. The peel extracts had a higher total phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity when compared to the seed extracts. The highest TEAC and ORAC values were apparent in peels of the Haas variety in which they amounted to 0.16 and 0.47 mmol Trolox/g DW, respectively. No significant (p > 0.05) differences were apparent between the TEAC values of seeds of the two varieties but the ORAC values differed significantly (p < 0.05). Overall these findings indicate that both the seeds and peel of avocado can be utilized as a functional food ingredient or as an antioxidant additive. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Garces-Rimon M.,Institute Investigacion En Ciencias Of Alimentacion Cial | Lopez-Exposito I.,Institute Investigacion En Ciencias Of Alimentacion Cial | Lopez-Fandino R.,Institute Investigacion En Ciencias Of Alimentacion Cial | Miguel M.,Institute Investigacion En Ciencias Of Alimentacion Cial
European Food Research and Technology | Year: 2015

The purpose of the present work consisted in the production of egg white hydrolysates with multiple biological activities that would allow the control of some pathologies related to the metabolic syndrome. Eight food-grade enzymes from different sources and specificities were used, and the hydrolysates were analysed for in vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, bile acid-binding, angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory and dipeptidyl peptidase IV-inhibitory activities. The hydrolysate of egg white with Bc Pepsin for 8 h presented a high ACE-inhibitory activity with an IC50 equivalent to, approximately, 50 µg protein/mL, as well as important peroxyl radical-scavenging and bile acid-binding capacities. The hydrolysate with Peptidase 433P for 24 h stood out for its peroxyl radical-scavenging capacity, equivalent to 900–1100 μmol Trolox/g of protein, and its potential hypocholesterolaemic activity. Both hydrolysates also exhibited a moderate DDP IV-inhibitory activity and prevented oxidative damage in RAW 264.7 macrophages, while that with Peptidase 433P also inhibited the release of proinflammatory cytokines induced by LPS in this cell line, in particular, that of IL-6. The multiple properties exerted by these hydrolysates suggest that they could target several symptoms of a complex disease, such as the metabolic syndrome. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Fernandez Vallinas S.,Complutense University of Madrid | Lopez Carreras N.,Complutense University of Madrid | Miguel M.,Institute Investigacion En Ciencias Of Alimentacion Csic Uam | Miguel M.,Institute Investigacion En Ciencias Of Alimentacion Cial | Aleixandre A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Nitric Oxide - Biology and Chemistry | Year: 2013

The involvement of endothelial-relaxing factors on the vascular and antihypertensive effects of a cocoa fiber product (CFP) obtained from cocoa husks was studied. We carried out in vitro experiments with aorta rings from untreated spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and in vivo experiments with SHR. CFP did not relax the endothelium denuded aorta rings and N W-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) partially blocked the vascular relaxing and antihypertensive effects of CFP. Nevertheless, indomethacin did not modify these effects. Nitric oxide mediates therefore the antihypertensive and aorta relaxing effects of CFP in SHR. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Fernandez-Vallinas S.,Complutense University of Madrid | Miguel M.,Institute Investigacion En Ciencias Of Alimentacion Cial | Aleixandre A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Food and Nutrition Research | Year: 2016

Background and Methods: This study evaluates the antihypertensive effect of long-term intake of a soluble cocoa fiber product (SCFP). Different doses of SCFP were evaluated (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg/day) and a dose of 800 mg/kg/day of beta-glucan 0.75 (BETA-G) was used as a standard fiber. Water, a neutral vehicle, was used as negative control, and 50 mg/kg/day captopril was used as positive control. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured weekly by the tail cuff method. Body weight, food, and liquid intake were also registered weekly in the rats from 10 to 24 weeks of life. Glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels; redox status; and the angiotensin-converting enzyme activity were also studied in the plasma samples of these animals. Results: Throughout the 10 weeks of treatment, captopril and SCFP (400 mg/kg/day) demonstrated blood pressure lowering effects in the spontaneously hypertensive rats (pB0.05; n8). Paradoxically, neither the highest dose (800 mg/kg/day) of SCFP decreased SBP nor 800 mg/kg/day BETA-G (p0.05; n8). When the corresponding antihypertensive treatment, was disrupted the SBP values of the 400 mg/kg/day SCFP treated animals returned to control values (p0.05; n8). In addition, the SCFP significantly decreased (pB0.05; n4) the glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels and also the liver and plasma malondaldehyde levels. Moreover, the SCFP slightly increased the reduced glutathione levels in the liver. Conclusion: The SCFP could be used to control the blood pressure of hypertensive subjects for a long period of time and could improve metabolic complications associated to cardiovascular diseases. © 2016 Sandra Fernández-Vallinas et al.


Lopez-Carreras N.,Complutense University of Madrid | Fernandez-Vallinas S.,Complutense University of Madrid | Hernandez R.,Hospital Central Of La Defensa | Miguel M.,Institute Investigacion En Ciencias Of Alimentacion Cial | Aleixandre A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Food Research International | Year: 2013

We evaluate the short-term effect of a Fraxinus excelsior L. seed extract, named FraxiPure (FRP) on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Water, Captopril and different doses of FRP were orally administered. Blood pressure was recorded by the tail cuff method and plasma samples were collected to determine antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde equivalents. In other trials, 18h fasted SHR were administered water, FRP, Furosemide, Torasemide, and Captopril. In these animals, urine was collected for 4h to obtain the urine volumetric excretion (UVE). Plasma samples of these animals were used to establish the fractional excretion (FE) of different ions (Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+ and PO4 3-) and metabolites (creatinine, urea and uric acid).FRP shows antihypertensive effect. The decrease in blood pressure caused by FRP was slightly lower than that of Captopril and more accentuated than that of Torasemide. FRP and Torasemide significantly increased UVE. Torasemide significantly increased FE(Na+) and FE(Cl-) and showed a clear uricosuric effect. FRP showed slight natriuretic effects and behaved as a potassium-sparing diuretic. FRP significantly increased plasma antioxidant capacity and decreased plasma malondialdehyde equivalents. The antihypertensive effect of FRP in SHR can therefore be related with its diuretic and antioxidant properties. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Institute Investigacion En Ciencias Of Alimentacion Cial and University of Buenos Aires
Type: | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2015

The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the presence of casein glycomacropeptide (CMP) on the in vitro digestibility and potential allergenicity of -lactoglobulin (-lg)-CMP mixtures. The digestion products were analyzed by RP-HPLC and RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The potential allergenicity of the digestion products was studied by human IgE binding by inhibition ELISA with serum samples from children with clinical allergic symptoms to -lg. No differences were observed by HPLC in the mixtures hydrolysates due to CMP--lg interactions. RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS results showed different peptides occurring in the mixtures hydrolysates. Additionally, it was observed a significant reduction of -lg IgE binding in the presence of CMP. The disappearance of epitopes in the digested mixtures could explain the lower IgE binding observed in these systems compared to -lg. It can be concluded that the presence of CMP in products containing -lg may modify the digestion products that may reduce the potential allergenicity of -lg.


Horszwald A.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Morales F.J.,Institute Ciencia Y Tecnologia Of Los Alimentos Y Nutricion | Del Castillo M.D.,Institute Investigacion En Ciencias Of Alimentacion Cial | Zielinski H.,Polish Academy of Sciences
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research | Year: 2010

The formation of antioxidants and contaminants such as acrylamide (ACR), hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural (FUR) during rye bread making was investigated. Flours with extraction rates of 700, 850, 950 and 1 000 g·kg-1 were used. Flour, dough, slice of bread, crust and crumb were analysed. Results are expressed on dry matter basis. Antioxidant capacity of water- and lipid-soluble antioxidants were measured by photochemiluminescence assay. Quencher approach was adapted to total antioxidant capacity and total reducing capacity (Folin-Ciocalteau) methods. Bread based on wholemeal flour showed the highest antioxidant capacity and the lowest levels of potentially harmful compounds (ACR: 50 μg·kg-1; HMF: 33.6 mg·kg-1; FUR: 1.6 mg·kg-1). Estimation of dietary intake of ACR, HMF and FUR from rye bread was 4.93 ng·kg -1 per day, 4.47 μg·kg-1 per day and 0.18 μg·kg-1 per day, respectively. Levels of ACR, HMF and FUR were 27-fold, 631-fold and 31-fold in crust, respetively, which represents less than 15% of the total weight of the bread, compared to crumb. Crust was also the principal contributor to maintain the overall water-soluble antioxidant capacity being up to 3.5-fold more active than crumb or dough. Any mitigation strategy might consider risk and benefits associated with crust. © 2010 VÚP Food Research Institute, Bratislava.


PubMed | Institute Investigacion En Ciencias Of Alimentacion Cial and Rey Juan Carlos University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the administration of egg white hydrolysates on obesity-related disorders, with a focus on lipid metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress, in Zucker fatty rats. Obese Zucker rats received water, pepsin egg white hydrolysate (750 mg/kg/day) or Rhizopus aminopeptidase egg white hydrolysate (750 mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks. Lean Zucker rats received water. Body weight, solid and liquid intakes were weekly measured. At the end of the study, urine, faeces, different organs and blood samples were collected. The consumption of egg white hydrolysed with pepsin significantly decreased the epididymal adipose tissue, improved hepatic steatosis, and lowered plasmatic concentration of free fatty acids in the obese animals. It also decreased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and reduced oxidative stress. Pepsin egg white hydrolysate could be used as a tool to improve obesity-related complications.

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