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Subias M.,CSIC - Biological Research Center | Subias M.,Research Center Biomedica en Enfermedades Raras | Tortajada A.,CSIC - Biological Research Center | Tortajada A.,Research Center Biomedica en Enfermedades Raras | And 16 more authors.
Journal of Immunology

The alternative pathway (AP) is critical for the efficient activation of complement regardless of the trigger. It is also a major player in pathogenesis, as illustrated by the long list of diseases in which AP activation contributes to pathology. Its relevance to human disease is further emphasized by the high prevalence of pathogenic inherited defects and acquired autoantibodies disrupting components and regulators of the AP C3-convertase. Because pharmacological downmodulation of the AP emerges as a broad-spectrum treatment alternative, there is a powerful interest in developing new molecules to block formation and/or activity of the AP C3-convertase. In this paper, we describe the generation of a novel mAb targeting human factor B (FB). mAb FB48.4.2, recognizing with high affinity an evolutionary-conserved epitope in the Ba fragment of FB, very efficiently inhibited formation of the AP C3-proconvertase by blocking the interaction between FB and C3b. In vitro assays using rabbit and sheep erythrocytes demonstrated that FB28.4.2 was a potent AP inhibitor that blocked complement-mediated hemolysis in several species. Using ex vivo models of disease we demonstrated that FB28.4.2 protected paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria erythrocytes from complement-mediated hemolysis and inhibited both C3 fragment and C5b-9 deposition on ADP-activated HMEC-1 cells, an experimental model for atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Moreover, i.v. injection of FB28.4.2 in rats blocked complement activation in rat serum and prevented the passive induction of experimental autoimmune Myasthenia gravis. As a whole, these data demonstrate the potential value of FB28.4.2 for the treatment of disorders associated with AP complement dysregulation in man and animal models. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc. Source

Sans-Atxer L.,Hypertension Unit | Torra R.,Inherited Renal Diseases | Torra R.,Renal Unit and Hypertension | Torra R.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 4 more authors.
Clinical Kidney Journal

Cardiovascular (CV) complications are the major cause of death in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients. Hypertension is common in these patients even before the onset of renal insufficiency. Blood pressure (BP) elevation is a key factor in patient outcome, mainly owing to the high prevalence of target organ damage together with a poor renal prognosis when BP is increased. Many factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension, including the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) stimulation. Polycystin deficiency may also contribute to hypertension because of its potential role in regulating the vascular tone. Early diagnosis and treatment of hypertension improve the CV and renal complications of this population. Ambulatory BP monitoring is recommended for prompt diagnosis of hypertension. CV risk assessment is mandatory. Even though a nonpharmacological approach should not be neglected, RAAS inhibitors are the cornerstone of hypertension treatment. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) should be avoided unless resistant hypertension is present. The BP should be <140/90 mmHg in all ADPKD patients and a more intensive control (<135/85 mmHg) should be pursued as soon as microalbuminuria or left ventricle hypertrophy is present. © 2013 © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com. Source

Krall P.,Institute Investigacion | Krall P.,Institute Investigacion Carlos III | Pineda C.,Institute Investigacion | Ruiz P.,Institute Investigacion | And 9 more authors.
Pediatric Nephrology

Background: Genetic diagnosis of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is challenging due to the length and allelic heterogeneity of the PKHD1 gene. Mutations appear to be clustered at specific exons, depending on the geographic origin of the patient. We aimed to identify the PKHD1 exons most likely mutated in Spanish ARPKD patients. Methods: Mutation analysis was performed in 50 ARPKD probands and nine ARPKD-suspicious patients by sequencing PKHD1 exons arranged by their reported mutation frequency. Haplotypes containing the most frequent mutations were analyzed. Other PKD genes (HNF1B, PKD1, PKD2) were sequenced in PKHD1-negative cases. Results: Thirty-six different mutations (concentrated in 24 PKHD1 exons) were detected, giving a mutation detection rate of 86 %. The screening of five exons (58, 32, 34, 36, 37) yielded a 54 % chance of detecting one mutation; the screening of nine additional exons (3, 9, 39, 61, 5, 22, 26, 41, 57) increased the chance to 76 %. The c.9689delA mutation was present in 17 (34 %) patients, all of whom shared the same haplotype. Two HNF1B mutations and one PKD1 variant were detected in negative cases. Conclusions: Establishing a PKHD1 exon mutation profile in a specific population and starting the analysis with the most likely mutated exons might significantly enhance the efficacy of genetic testing in ARPKD. Analysis of other PKD genes might be considered, especially in suspicious cases. © 2013 IPNA. Source

Lloret M.J.,Fundacio Puigvert | Lloret M.J.,Institute Investigacion Carlos III | Ruiz-Garcia C.,Fundacio Puigvert | Ruiz-Garcia C.,Institute Investigacion Carlos III | And 10 more authors.
Patient Preference and Adherence

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with very high mortality rates, mainly of cardiovascular origin. The retention of phosphate (P) and increased fibroblast growth factor-23 levels are common, even at early stages of CKD, due to disturbances in normal P homeostasis. Later, hyperphosphatemia appears, which has also been strongly associated with high mortality rates linked to P-mediated cardiovascular and procalcifying effects. Treatment guidelines for these patients continue to be poorly implemented, at least partially due to the lack of adherence to a P-restricted diet and P-binder therapy. Calcium-free P binders, such as lanthanum carbonate, have been associated with a decreased progression of vascular calcification, rendering them an important therapeutic alternative for these high cardiovascular risk CKD patients. Lanthanum carbonate has typically been available as chewable tablets, and the new presentation as an oral powder may provide a useful alternative in the therapeutic armamentarium. This powder is a tasteless, odorless, and colorless semisolid compound miscible with food. In a recent study in healthy individuals, the safety and efficacy of this novel form were evaluated, and it was concluded that it is well tolerated and pharmacodynamically equivalent to the chewable form. In the long run, individualization of preferences and treatments seems an achievable goal prior to final demonstration of improvements in hard outcomes in wide clinical trials in CKD patients. © 2013 Lloret et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd. Source

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