Curiel-Balsera E.,University of Malaga |
Curiel-Balsera E.,Carlos Haya Hospital |
Munoz-Bono J.,University of Malaga |
Olea-Jimenez V.,University of Malaga |
And 6 more authors.
Minerva Anestesiologica | Year: 2015
Background. Statin use prior to cardiac surgery has been reported to improve outcomes in the postoperative period because of other effects apart from decreasing lipid levels. Objective of the study was to analyse mortality and acute renal failure (ARF) during the cardiac surgery postoperative period in patients treated with or without statins. Methods. This prospective cohort study comprised adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery at 11 institutions in the Andalusian community from March 2008 to July 2012 included in the ARIAM adult cardiac surgery project. We performed a first analysis in the whole cohort and in a second analysis statin users prior to surgery were pair matched with non-users according to their propensity score based on demographics, comorbidities, medication and surgical data. We analysed differences in outcomes, ARF, need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) and a composite end point with mortality or major morbidity in both groups. Results. The study included 7276 patients, of whom 3749 were treated with statins. Overall, hospital mortality was 10.1%, 10.5% developed ARF and 2.5% required RRT. In the whole non-matched cohort, statins were associated with lower hospital mortality (OR 0.79; 95% CI, 0.67-0.93) and less ARF (OR 0.79; 95% CI, 0.68-0.93). However, after propensity score analysis in the matched cohort of 3056 patients (1528 in each group), statin use was not consistently associated with less ARF (OR 0.94; 95% CI, 0.74-1.19), hospital mortality (OR 0.83; 95% CI, 0.68-1.1) or composite outcome (OR 0.857; 95% CI, 0.723-1.015). Conclusion. Despite better outcomes for the statin users in the whole cohort, the matched analysis showed that statin use before cardiac surgery was not associated with a lower risk of ARF. Nor was presurgery statin use associated with lower hospital mortality. © 2015 edizioni minerva medica.
Merritt M.A.,Imperial College London |
Tzoulaki I.,Imperial College London |
Tworoger S.S.,Harvard University |
De Vivo I.,Harvard University |
And 65 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention | Year: 2015
Data on the role of dietary factors in endometrial cancer development are limited and inconsistent. We applied a "nutrient-wide association study" approach to systematically evaluate dietary risk associations for endometrial cancer while controlling for multiple hypothesis tests using the false discovery rate (FDR) and validating the results in an independent cohort. We evaluated endometrial cancer risk associations for dietary intake of 84 foods and nutrients based on dietary questionnaires in three prospective studies, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC; N = 1,303 cases) followed by validation of nine foods/nutrients (FDR ≤ 0.10) in the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS/NHSII; N = 1,531 cases). Cox regression models were used to estimate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). In multivariate adjusted comparisons of the extreme categories of intake at baseline, coffee was inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk (EPIC, median intake 750 g/day vs. 8.6; HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.68-0.97, Ptrend = 0.09; NHS/NHSII, median intake 1067 g/day vs. none; HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70-0.96, Ptrend = 0.04). Eight other dietary factors that were associated with endometrial cancer risk in the EPIC study (total fat, monounsaturated fat, carbohydrates, phosphorus, butter, yogurt, cheese, and potatoes) were not confirmed in the NHS/NHSII. Our findings suggest that coffee intake may be inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk. Further data are needed to confirm these findings and to examine the mechanisms linking coffee intake to endometrial cancer risk to develop improved prevention strategies. © 2014 American Association for Cancer Research.
Castro-Quezada I.,University of Granada |
Artacho R.,University of Granada |
Molina-Montes E.,Campus Universitario Of La Cartuja |
Molina-Montes E.,CIBER ISCIII |
And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2015
Purpose: To examine the association between dietary glycaemic index (GI) and dietary glycaemic load (GL) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a rural elderly population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 343 subjects (60–74 years) residing in a Spanish rural area (Priego de Córdoba). Subjects were selected using stratified random sampling. Food intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We assigned GI values to each item of the FFQ to estimate dietary GI and GL. Multivariate linear regression models were fitted to assess the association between GI/GL with CVD risk factors (blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein A1, body mass index, waist circumference and blood pressure). The potential modifying effect of sex, smoking status, diabetes and medication has been explored. Results: A statistically significant inverse association between dietary GI and blood glucose was found in the multivariate model (p = 0.029): for every 10 unit increment of GI, serum glucose levels decreased by 0.2 units. However, statistical significance was lost after controlling for diabetes or hypoglycaemic medication. In the crude model, dietary GL was associated with triglycerides (ß for every 10 GL units increase = 0.70, p = 0.005), but statistical significance was lost in the multivariate model (p = 0.508). No associations were found between dietary GI/GL and the rest of the variables studied. Conclusions: Neither dietary GI nor GL were associated with CVD risk factors in the study population of Priego de Córdoba. Results obtained suggest the necessity to consider the diagnosis of diabetes in these studies. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Aleksandrova K.,German Institute of Human Nutrition |
Pischon T.,Molecular Epidemiology Group |
Jenab M.,International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC WHO |
Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM |
And 60 more authors.
BMC Medicine | Year: 2014
Excess body weight, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and certain dietary factors are individually related to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk; however, little is known about their joint effects. The aim of this study was to develop a healthy lifestyle index (HLI) composed of five potentially modifiable lifestyle factors - healthy weight, physical activity, non-smoking, limited alcohol consumption and a healthy diet, and to explore the association of this index with CRC incidence using data collected within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.Methods: In the EPIC cohort, a total of 347,237 men and women, 25- to 70-years old, provided dietary and lifestyle information at study baseline (1992 to 2000). Over a median follow-up time of 12 years, 3,759 incident CRC cases were identified. The association between a HLI and CRC risk was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards regression models and population attributable risks (PARs) have been calculated.Results: After accounting for study centre, age, sex and education, compared with 0 or 1 healthy lifestyle factors, the hazard ratio (HR) for CRC was 0.87 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44 to 0.77) for two factors, 0.79 (95% CI: 0.70 to 0.89) for three factors, 0.66 (95% CI: 0.58 to 0.75) for four factors and 0.63 (95% CI: 0.54 to 0.74) for five factors; P-trend <0.0001. The associations were present for both colon and rectal cancers, HRs, 0.61 (95% CI: 0.50 to 0.74; P for trend <0.0001) for colon cancer and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.53 to 0.88; P-trend <0.0001) for rectal cancer, respectively (P-difference by cancer sub-site = 0.10). Overall, 16% of the new CRC cases (22% in men and 11% in women) were attributable to not adhering to a combination of all five healthy lifestyle behaviours included in the index.Conclusions: Combined lifestyle factors are associated with a lower incidence of CRC in European populations characterized by western lifestyles. Prevention strategies considering complex targeting of multiple lifestyle factors may provide practical means for improved CRC prevention. © 2014 Aleksandrova et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Campa D.,German Cancer Research Center |
Mergarten B.,German Cancer Research Center |
De Vivo I.,Harvard University |
Boutron-Ruault M.-C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
And 51 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention | Year: 2014
Background: Several studies have examined leukocyte telomere length (LTL) as a possible predictor for cancer at various organ sites. The hypothesis originally motivating many of these studies was that shorter telomeres would be associated with an increase in cancer risk; the results of epidemiologic studies have been inconsistent, however, and suggested positive, negative, or null associations. Two studies have addressed the association of LTL in relation to pancreatic cancer risk and the results are contrasting. Methods: We measured LTL in a prospective study of 331 pancreatic cancer cases and 331 controls in the context of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Results: We observed that the mean LTL was higher in cases (0.59 ± 0.20) than in controls (0.57 ± 0.17), although this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.07), and a basic logistic regression model showed no association of LTL with pancreas cancer risk. When adjusting for levels of HbA1c and C-peptide, however, there was a weakly positive association between longer LTL and pancreatic cancer risk [OR, 1.13; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-1.27]. Additional analyses by cubic spline regression suggested a possible nonlinear relationship between LTL and pancreatic cancer risk (P = 0.022), with a statistically nonsignificant increase in risk at very low LTL, as well as a significant increase at high LTL. Conclusion: Taken together, the results from our study do not support LTL as a uniform and strong predictor of pancreatic cancer. Impact: The results of this article can provide insights into telomere dynamics and highlight the complex relationship between LTL and pancreatic cancer risk. ©2014 AACR.
Nitter M.,University of Bergen |
Norgard B.,University of Bergen |
de Vogel S.,University of Bergen |
Eussen S.J.P.M.,University of Bergen |
And 56 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2014
Background: Disturbances in one carbon metabolism may contribute to carcinogenesis by affecting methylation and synthesis of DNA. Choline and its oxidation product betaine are involved in this metabolism and can serve as alternative methyl group donors when folate status is low. Patients and methods: We conducted a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), to investigate plasma concentrations of the methyl donors methionine, choline, betaine (trimethylglycine), and dimethylglycine (DMG) in relation to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Our study included 1367 incidentCRC cases (965 colon and 402 rectum) and 2323 controls matched by gender, age group, and study center. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for CRC risk were estimated by conditional logistic regression, comparing the fifth to the first quintile of plasma concentrations. Results: Overall, methionine (OR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.63-0.99, P-trend = 0.05), choline (OR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.60-0.99, P-trend = 0.07), and betaine (OR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.66-1.09, P-trend = 0.06) concentrations were inversely associated with CRC risk of borderline significance. In participants with folate concentration below the median of 11.3 nmol/l, high betaine concentration was associated with reduced CRC risk (OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.50-1.00, P-trend = 0.02), which was not observed for those having a higher folate status. Among women, but not men, high choline concentration was associated with decreased CRC risk (OR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.43-0.88, P-trend = 0.01). Plasma DMG was not associated with CRC risk. Conclusions: Individuals with high plasma concentrations of methionine, choline, and betaine may be at reduced risk of CRC. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.
Remon J.,Hospital Of Mataro |
Molina-Montes E.,Institute Investigacion Biosanitaria Of Granada Granadaibs |
Molina-Montes E.,CIBER ISCIII |
Majem M.,Hospital Of La Santa Creu I Sant Pau |
And 9 more authors.
Clinical and Translational Oncology | Year: 2014
Lung cancer incidence is decreasing worldwide among men but rising among women due to recent changes in smoking patterns in both sexes. In Europe, the smoking epidemic has evolved different rates and times, and policy responses to it, vary substantially between countries. Differences in smoking prevalence are much more evident among European women reflecting the heterogeneity in cancer incidence rates. Other factors rather than smoking and linked to sex may increase women's susceptibility to lung cancer, such as genetic predisposition, exposure to sex hormones and molecular features, all of them linked to epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of lung cancer in women. However, biological bases of sex-specific differences are controversial and need further evaluation. This review focuses on the epidemiology and outcome concerning non-small cell lung cancer in women, with emphasis given to the Spanish population. © Federación de Sociedades Españolas de Oncología (FESEO) 2013.
PubMed | Danish Cancer Society, German Institute of Human Nutrition, Catalan Institute of Oncology IDIBELL, University of Tromsø and 20 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cancer causes & control : CCC | Year: 2015
The strong association between t(14;18) translocation and follicular lymphoma (FL) is well known. However, the determinants of this chromosomal aberration and their role in t(14;18) associated FL remain to be established.t(14;18) frequency within the B cell lymphoma 2 major breakpoint region was determined for 135 incident FL cases and 251 healthy controls as part of a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer cohort. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed in DNA extracted from blood samples taken at recruitment. The relationship between prevalence and frequency of the translocation with baseline anthropometric, lifestyle, and dietary factors in cases and controls was determined. Unconditional logistic regression was used to explore whether the risk of FL associated with these factors differed in t(14;18)(+) as compared to t(14;18)(-) cases.Among incident FL cases, educational level ((2) p = 0.021) and height ((2) p = 0.025) were positively associated with t(14;18) prevalence, and cases with high frequencies [t(14;18)(HF)] were significantly taller (t test p value = 0.006). These findings were not replicated in the control population, although there were a number of significant associations with dietary variables. Further analyses revealed that height was a significant risk factor for t(14;18)(+) FL [OR 6.31 (95% CI 2.11, 18.9) in the tallest versus the shortest quartile], but not t(14;18)(-) cases.These findings suggest a potential role for lifestyle factors in the prevalence and frequency of the t(14;18) translocation. The observation that the etiology of FL may differ by t(14;18) status, particularly with regard to height, supports the subdivision of FL by translocation status.
Muezzinler A.,German Cancer Research Center |
Mons U.,German Cancer Research Center |
Gellert C.,German Cancer Research Center |
Schottker B.,German Cancer Research Center |
And 43 more authors.
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2015
Introduction Smoking is known to be a major cause of death among middle-aged adults, but evidence on its impact and the benefits of smoking cessation among older adults has remained limited. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the influence of smoking and smoking cessation on all-cause mortality in people aged ≥60 years. Methods Relative mortality and mortality rate advancement periods (RAPs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models for the population-based prospective cohort studies from Europe and the U.S. (CHANCES [Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the U.S.]), and subsequently pooled by individual participant meta-analysis. Statistical analyses were performed from June 2013 to March 2014. Results A total of 489,056 participants aged ≥60 years at baseline from 22 population-based cohort studies were included. Overall, 99,298 deaths were recorded. Current smokers had 2-fold and former smokers had 1.3-fold increased mortality compared with never smokers. These increases in mortality translated to RAPs of 6.4 (95% CI=4.8, 7.9) and 2.4 (95% CI=1.5, 3.4) years, respectively. A clear positive dose-response relationship was observed between number of currently smoked cigarettes and mortality. For former smokers, excess mortality and RAPs decreased with time since cessation, with RAPs of 3.9 (95% CI=3.0, 4.7), 2.7 (95% CI=1.8, 3.6), and 0.7 (95% CI=0.2, 1.1) for those who had quit <10, 10 to 19, and ≥20 years ago, respectively. Conclusions Smoking remains as a strong risk factor for premature mortality in older individuals and cessation remains beneficial even at advanced ages. Efforts to support smoking abstinence at all ages should be a public health priority. © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.
Kuijsten A.,Wageningen University |
Aune D.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology |
Aune D.,Imperial College London |
Schulze M.B.,German Institute of Human Nutrition |
And 48 more authors.
Diabetologia | Year: 2015
Aims/hypothesis: Intake of dietary fibre has been associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes, but few European studies have been published on this. We evaluated the association between intake of dietary fibre and type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study and in a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Methods: During 10.8 years of follow-up, 11,559 participants with type 2 diabetes were identified and a subcohort of 15,258 participants was selected for the case-cohort study. Country-specific HRs were estimated using Prentice-weighted Cox proportional hazards models and were pooled using a random effects meta-analysis. Eighteen other cohort studies were identified for the meta-analysis. Results: In the EPIC-InterAct Study, dietary fibre intake was associated with a lower risk of diabetes (HRQ4 vs Q1 0.82; 95% CI 0.69, 0.97) after adjustment for lifestyle and dietary factors. Similar inverse associations were observed for the intake of cereal fibre and vegetable fibre, but not fruit fibre. The associations were attenuated and no longer statistically significant after adjustment for BMI. In the meta-analysis (19 cohorts), the summary RRs per 10 g/day increase in intake were 0.91 (95% CI 0.87, 0.96) for total fibre, 0.75 (95% CI 0.65, 0.86) for cereal fibre, 0.95 (95% CI 0.87, 1.03) for fruit fibre and 0.93 (95% CI 0.82, 1.05) for vegetable fibre. Conclusions/interpretation: The overall evidence indicates that the intake of total and cereal fibre is inversely related to the risk of type 2 diabetes. The results of the EPIC-InterAct Study suggest that the association may be partially explained by body weight. © 2015, The Author(s).