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Serrano A.,Institute Investigacion Biomedica IBIMA | Pavon F.J.,Institute Investigacion Biomedica IBIMA | Rodriguez de Fonseca F.,University of Malaga
Addiction Biology | Year: 2016

Alcohol abuse is frequently characterized by a specific pattern of intake in binge drinking episodes, inducing neuroinflammation and brain damage. Here, we characterized the temporal profile of neuroinflammation in rats exposed to intragastric binge ethanol administrations (3 times/day×4days) and tested the anti-inflammatory/neuroprotective properties of the satiety factor oleoylethanolamide (OEA). Pre-treatment with OEA (5 mg/kg, i.p.) previous each alcohol gavage blocked the expression of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) danger signal and the innate immunity Toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4) in frontal cortex, and inhibited the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) proinflammatory cascade induced by alcohol binge administration. OEA reduced the levels of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and the enzymes cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in ethanol binged animals. Elevations in plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and IL-1β after ethanol were also inhibited by OEA. OEA also prevented ethanol-induced lipid peroxidation, caspase-8 and pro-apoptotic caspase-3 activation in frontal cortex. Additionally, OEA blocked the rise in blood corticosterone levels after ethanol with no alteration in blood ethanol levels and may affect ethanol-induced gut permeability for endotoxin. Finally, OEA, administered as a pre-treatment during the ethanol binge, exerted antidepressant-like effects during acute withdrawal. Altogether, results highlight a beneficial profile of OEA as a potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective and antidepressant-like compound to treat alcohol abuse. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction. Source

Martin-Nunez G.M.,Institute Investigacion Biomedica IBIMA | Martin-Nunez G.M.,CIBER ISCIII | Cabrera-Mulero R.,Institute Investigacion Biomedica IBIMA | Rojo-Martinez G.,Institute Investigacion Biomedica IBIMA | And 13 more authors.
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2013

Scope: The serum fatty acid (FA) composition is influenced by dietary fat and the endogenous production of FAs. Stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) is the rate-limiting enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of MUFAs from saturated FAs. Variations in SCD1 activity have been associated with obesity, diabetes, or inflammation. We evaluated the associations between genetic variation of the SCD1 gene, SCD1 activity, intake of oil, and obesity in a population-based prospective study in southern Spain. Methods and results: We collected phenotypic, metabolic, nutritional, and genetic information. The type of dietary fat was assessed from samples of cooking oil taken from the participants' kitchens and analyzed by GC. A total of nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the SCD1 gene were analyzed by SNPlex technology. We found a significant association between SCD1 genetic variation and enzyme activity in four of nine polymorphisms studied. An interaction between rs10883463 and olive oil intake on the [18:1/18:0] desaturase index was found (p = 0.009). We also showed that genetic variations in the SCD1 gene were associated with obesity. Conclusion: Our results show a relationship between genetic variation of the SCD1 gene, enzyme activity, and the risk of obesity, an association that is not independent of the type of oil consumed. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Rivera P.,Institute Investigacion Biomedica IBIMA | Rivera P.,CIBER ISCIII | Perez-Martin M.,University of Malaga | Pavon F.J.,Institute Investigacion Biomedica IBIMA | And 16 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Soy extracts have been claimed to be neuroprotective against brain insults, an effect related to the estrogenic properties of isoflavones. However, the effects of individual isoflavones on obesity-induced disruption of adult neurogenesis have not yet been analyzed. In the present study we explore the effects of pharmacological administration of daidzein, a main soy isoflavone, in cell proliferation, cell apoptosis and gliosis in the adult hippocampus of animals exposed to a very high-fat diet. Rats made obese after 12-week exposure to a standard or high-fat (HFD, 60%) diets were treated with daidzein (50 mg kg-1) for 13 days. Then, plasma levels of metabolites and metabolic hormones, cell proliferation in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (SGZ), and immunohistochemical markers of hippocampal cell apoptosis (caspase-3), gliosis (GFAP and Iba-1), food reward factor FosB and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) were analyzed. Treatment with daidzein reduced food/caloric intake and body weight gain in obese rats. This was associated with glucose tolerance, low levels of HDL-cholesterol, insulin, adiponectin and testosterone, and high levels of leptin and 17β-estradiol. Daidzein increased the number of phospho-histone H3 and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-ir cells detected in the SGZ of standard diet and HFD-fed rats. Daidzein reversed the HFD-associated enhanced immunohistochemical expression of caspase-3, FosB, GFAP, Iba-1 and ERα in the hippocampus, being more prominent in the dentate gyrus. These results suggest that pharmacological treatment with isoflavones regulates metabolic alterations associated with enhancement of cell proliferation and reduction of apoptosis and gliosis in response to high-fat diet. © 2013 Rivera et al. Source

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