Institute Investigacion Agropecuaria Of Panama

Ciudad del, Panama

Institute Investigacion Agropecuaria Of Panama

Ciudad del, Panama
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Portillo O.R.,Texas A&M University | Clara-Valencia R.,Tecnologia Agropecuaria y Forestal | Ramirez J.,Institute Ciencia y Tecnologia Agricolas | Estebez R.,Tecnologia Agropecuaria y Forestal | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Plant Registrations | Year: 2014

The sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] cultivar CI0947bmr (Reg. No. CV-137, PI 672153) was jointly developed and released by the Centro Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria y Forestal (CENTA) research program in El Salvador and the Texas A&M Agrilife Research sorghum breeding program in 2013. CI0947bmr is a brown midrib (bmr), dual-purpose sorghum selected for productivity in Central American environments. CI0947bmr was developed from a pedigree breeding program, and it was derived from a BC1F2 population of the pedigree B03292bmr/Tortillero//Tortillero. All generation advancement and selection were completed in San Andres, El Salvador. To confirm performance of the line, CI0947bmr was evaluated in replicated yield trials in 10 Central American environments ranging from Panama to Guatemala in 2010 and 2011. Compared with Sureno (a non-bmr dual-purpose sorghum cultivar grown in the region), CI0947bmr is similar in maturity, dry biomass yield, grain yield, and composition, with lower concentration of lignin and higher in vitro dry matter digestibility and total digestible nutrients. Given these characteristics, CI0947bmr can be used for forage production (grazing and silage) or for grain production with the post-harvest plant residue suitable as forage. In addition, producers can save seed for replanting. This cultivar is designed to provide small livestock producers and dairies in Central America with access to sorghum forage with improved forage quality without sacrificing dry matter yield, grain yield, or grain quality. © Crop Science Society of America. All rights reserved.


Marin F.,University of Almeria | Dianez F.,University of Almeria | Santos M.,University of Almeria | Carretero F.,University of Almeria | And 2 more authors.
Phytopathologia Mediterranea | Year: 2014

Suppressive effects of different compost teas were evaluated against the phytopathogens P. capsici and P. parasitica, isolated from diseased plants from commercial sweet pepper farms in Almería (Spain), during 2011. Aerated compost tea and non-aerated compost tea were prepared from spent mushroom compost, grape marc compost, crop residues compost and vermicompost. In vitro inhibition of mycelial growth of the two tested pathogens was assessed, and in vivo effects of compost teas on disease severity, caused by P. capsici and P. parasitica were evaluated on pepper plants, in greenhouse experiments. Different morphological parameters were also measured for plants treated with compost teas, to determine growth promotion effects on pepper plants. The compost teas controlled the two tested pathogens in vitro and in vivo. Non-aerated compost teas (NCT) were more beneficial in increasing growth of pepper plants than aerated compost teas. This study demonstrates the clear effect of compost tea on disease suppression and plant growth promotion. These compost extracts may be used as alternatives to inorganic fertilizers/fungicides to enhance plant growth, reduce disease incidence and increase crop yields. © Firenze University Press.


Marin F.,University of Almeria | Santos M.,University of Almeria | Dianez F.,University of Almeria | Carretero F.,University of Almeria | Yau J.A.,Institute Investigacion Agropecuaria Of Panama
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Compost teas (CT) are fermented watery extracts of composted materials that are used to control plant diseases and on crop fertilization. In this work, aerated (ACT) and non-aerated compost teas (NCT) were obtained from four different composts: spent mushroom substrate compost, grape marc compost, greenhouse horticultural crop residues compost, and vermicompost. Physico-chemical and microbiological analysis were carried out to determine their properties. In vitro assays were performed to assess their suppressive effect on the mycelial growth of eight fungal phytopathogens. In vivo trials aimed to assess their effect on gummy stem blight (Didymella bryonae) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera fusca) in melon plants. Results showed that ACT and NCT filtrates inhibited the in vitro growth of all tested pathogens while autoclaved CT did not completely lose their inhibitory effect, and CT sterilized by microfiltration had no effect on the pathogen growth. The severity of powdery mildew was highly reduced by ACT and NCT from all sources, though in gummy stem blight assay only a delay in disease development was observed. In general, all compost teas showed a high level of microbial populations and nutrients. Results suggest that the efficacy of ACT and NCT firstly depend on the microbiota present in them. We consider compost teas from the four tested sources as a viable way to manage plant diseases and crop fertilization, throughout its integration in pest management programs and fertirrigation systems under different dilution rates. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Monrroy M.,Autonomous University of Chiriqui | Gutierrez D.,Autonomous University of Chiriqui | Miranda M.,Autonomous University of Chiriqui | Hernandez K.,Institute Investigacion Agropecuaria Of Panama | Garcia J.R.,Autonomous University of Chiriqui
Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society | Year: 2017

Characterizing the chemical properties of forage is critical for the production of improved pastures and livestock development. Conventional analysis methods are very time- and material-consuming, whereas near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and chemometric analyses allow a fast simultaneous determination of various chemical or physical properties without the use of solvents or large sample amounts. The present research involved the development of models based on NIRS and partial least squares regression (PLS) to estimate the neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), cellulose, and crude protein (CP) contents in Brachiaria spp. forage samples. The models were constructed using spectral data in the range of 800 to 1850 nm. Different preprocessing methods were applied, such as standard normal variate and first-/second-derivative transformations. The obtained calibration models were internally cross-validated, displaying validation errors similar to those obtained for conventional methods. The predictive abilities of the developed models were evaluated for external set samples. NDF, ADF, cellulose, and CP contents were estimated with relative errors of prediction (REPs) of 1.8, 2.6, 4.1, and 8.5%, respectively. NIRS predictions are a useful and profitable tool for fast multi-sample chemical property analysis that is required for the assessment of forage quality. The obtained models are suitable for estimating the key chemical characteristics of forage quality. This research contributes a new approach to determining the quality of Brachiaria spp. forage and provides a new technological tool for the improvement of this crop.


Diaz R.,University of Florida | Menocal O.,University of Florida | Montemayor C.,Institute Investigacion Agropecuaria Of Panama | Overholt W.A.,University of Florida
Annals of the Entomological Society of America | Year: 2013

Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal) is a major exotic weed in pastures and conservation areas in subtropical regions. Anthonomus tenebrosus Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was found feeding on the flowers of tropical soda apple in southern Brazil and was considered a potential biological control agent. The objectives of this study were to examine the life history and host specificity of A. tenebrosus. The development from egg to adult was measured at eight constant temperatures in growth chambers. The presence of reproductive diapause was measured by using a two-way factorial design with three temperatures (20, 22.5, and 25°C) and two photoperiods (14:10 and 10:14 [L:D] h). Temperature influenced the developmental time from egg to adult of A. tenebrosus, which ranged from 49.6 d at 16°C to 13.6 d at 28°C. The longevity of males ranged from 64 to 190 d, whereas females lived from 44 to 204 d. When exposed to 10:14 (L:D) h and 20°C, 35% of females entered reproductive diapause. The fundamental host range of A. tenebrosus-based on several life-history aspects, including adult longevity, oogenesis, and oviposition-and immature development of A. tenebrosus were studied. Under no-choice conditions, ≈80% of adults survived for 30 d on several Solanum melongena L. varieties, Solanum capsicoides, S. viarum, and Solanum carolinense L. A. tenebrosus completed development from egg to adult on a number of S. melongena varieties, the native plant S. carolinense, and the exotic plants S. capsicoides All, S. viarum, and Solanum tampicense Dunal. Under paired-choice conditions, adult feeding occurred on all species, whereas oviposition occurred only on S. viarum, S. capsicoides, and S. carolinense. Because of the nontarget attack to S. melongena and a native plant, A. tenebrosus should not be considered for release as a biological control agent of tropical soda apple in the United States. © 2013 Entomological Society of America.


Camargo-Buitrago I.,Institute Investigacion Agropecuaria Of Panama | Intire E.Q.,Institute Investigacion Agropecuaria Of Panama | Gordon-Mendoza R.,Institute Investigacion Agropecuaria Of Panama
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2011

The objective of this work was to evaluate three methods to identify mega-environments, in order to optimize the use of the genetic potential of rice cultivars during the selection process and to make recommendations for commercial plantations in Panama. Experimental data were obtained from the test performance, between 2006 and 2008, for early maturing cultivars. To achieve the stratification of environments and define mega-environments, the winner genotype method by the AMMI1 model, GGE biplot model and cluster by Ward's method supplemented by GGE biplot were used. The three methods used identified two mega-environments, where the outstanding cultivars were Fedearroz 473 e Idiap 145-05. There was 100% coincidence in the grouping of the cluster x the GGE biplot, with 95.2% coincidence between the AMMI1 x cluster and GGE biplot x AMMI1. The most stable genotype, in both mega-environments, was the Idiap 145-05 cultivar, which indicates its broad and specific adaptive capacity. The adaptive capacity of the superior genotypes and not the agroclimatic conditions of the assessed localities was responsible for defining the mega-environments.


Zachrisson B.,Institute Investigacion Agropecuaria Of Panama | Costa V.,Instituto Biologico | Bernal J.,Autonomous University of Chiriqui
Idesia | Year: 2014

The objective of this work was to determine the parasitism rate of Oebalus insularis eggs, in different rice varieties (CONAGRO-2, ESTRELLA-92, IDIAP-5405). The parasitism rate of O. insularis eggs was determinated under controlled conditions of temperature (25±1 °C), relative humidity (85±3%) and photophase (12 hours). The parasitoids Telenomus podisi and Trissolcus basalis were identified. The average parasitismo rate of parasitoids complex was above 90% and the most abundant specie was Te. podisi, with 81, 8% parasitism.


Ruane A.C.,NASA | Ruane A.C.,Columbia University | Cecil L.D.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Horton R.M.,NASA | And 9 more authors.
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology | Year: 2013

We present results from a pilot project to characterize and bound multi-disciplinary uncertainties around the assessment of maize (Zea mays) production impacts using the CERES-Maize crop model in a climate-sensitive region with a variety of farming systems (Panama). Segunda coa (autumn) maize yield in Panama currently suffers occasionally from high water stress at the end of the growing season, however under future climate conditions warmer temperatures accelerate crop maturation and elevated CO2 concentrations improve water retention. This combination reduces end-of-season water stresses and eventually leads to small mean yield gains according to median projections, although accelerated maturation reduces yields in seasons with low water stresses. Calibrations of cultivar traits, soil profile, and fertilizer amounts are most important for representing baseline yields, however sensitivity to all management factors are reduced in an assessment of future yield changes (most dramatically for fertilizers), suggesting that yield changes may be more generalizable than absolute yields.Uncertainty around GCMs' projected changes in rainfall gain in importance throughout the century, with yield changes strongly correlated with growing season rainfall totals. Climate changes are expected to be obscured by the large interannual variations in Panamanian climate that will continue to be the dominant influence on seasonal maize yield into the coming decades. The relatively high (A2) and low (B1) emissions scenarios show little difference in their impact on future maize yields until the end of the century. Uncertainties related to the sensitivity of CERES-Maize to carbon dioxide concentrations have a substantial influence on projected changes, and remain a significant obstacle to climate change impacts assessment. Finally, an investigation into the potential of simple statistical yield emulators based upon key climate variables characterizes the important uncertainties behind the selection of climate change metrics and their performance against more complex process-based crop model simulations, revealing a danger in relying only on long-term mean quantities for crop impact assessment. © 2011 .


Garming H.,Tropical Agriculture Research and Higher Education Center | Espinosa J.,Institute Investigacion Agropecuaria Of Panama | Guardia S.,Tropical Agriculture Research and Higher Education Center | Jimenez R.,Instituto Dominicano Of Investigacion Agropecuaria Y Forestal
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Improved cultivars of banana and plantain for managing biotic and abiotic stress and increasing productivity have been disseminated in many countries. Although some of these hybrids have performed well in many environments, evidence for large-scale adoption and acceptance in national markets is scarce. This study assesses the impact of the banana hybrid FHIA-21 (AAAB) in the Dominican Republic and analyses the factors that facilitated acceptance in national markets and adoption among farmers. Data collection included a household survey with a randomized sample of 182 farmers in the country's most important growing region, the Cibao valley, and interviews with 15 key informants from the public and the private sector involved in research, extension and business related to plantains. Results show that 64% of survey respondents are now growing FHIA-21; of these adopters, 60% also continue cultivating the local cultivars. Results show that respondents who grow both FHIA-21 and the traditional triploids, with similar crop management, get significantly higher yields for FHIA-21 (20-25 t/ha versus 15-18 t/ha for the traditional cultivars). The adoption of FHIA-21 was found to be part of broader technological changes and closely related to the adoption of other modern production practices, such as higher planting densities, irrigation and frequent replanting; leading to particularly large yield differences between FHIA-21-only producers and those who exclusively produce traditional local cultivars. On the fresh markets, FHIA-21 is now widely accepted, although prices are about 30-40% lower, which makes it interesting for poorer consumers. As pointed out by key informants, market acceptance increased quickly after the decision of a large processing company to source FHIA-21 for their green plantain chips production, which was based on an initiative for collaboration between research institutes and the processing industry. The results emphasize the importance of agricultural policy and market conditions to enable and facilitate the large-scale adoption and impacts of new technologies, such as plantain hybrids.

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