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El Puerto de Santa María, Spain

Armada I.,Institute Investigacion Agraria y Pesquera | Hachero-Cruzado I.,Institute Investigacion Agraria y Pesquera | Mazuelos N.,Pesquerias Isla Mayor S.A. | Rios J.L.,CSIC - Instituto de la Grasa | And 2 more authors.

Two Haptophytes were isolated from extensive aquaculture ponds at Veta La Palma state (Guadalquivir estuary, SW Spain). They were identified as Pseudoisochrysis paradoxa VLP and Diacronema vlkianum VLP based on their SSU rDNA homology to other Haptophytes and positioned in the Isochrysidaceae and Pavlovaceae families, respectively. Both Haptophytes had phosphatidilglycerol (PG) as the only phospholipid (PL), representing a low proportion of the total lipid content (0.8% in P. paradoxa VLP and 3.3% in D. vlkianum VLP). Instead, they were found to have different types of betaine lipids (BL) that were identified and characterized by HPLC/ESI-TOF-MS operating in multiple reacting monitoring (MRM) modes. P. paradoxa VLP had 2.2% of total lipids as diacylgyceryl-N-trimethylhomoserine (DGTS): it is the first Haptophyte reported to have this BL. Its total lipid fraction also contained 12.0% of diacylglyceryl-carboxyhydroxymethylcholine (DGCC) as the main BL and no diacylglyceryl-hydroxymethyl-N,N,N-trimethyl- b-alanine (DGTA) was detected. DGTA was only present (4.6% of total lipids) in D. vlkianum VLP: this was the main difference in BL content relative to P. paradoxa. D. vlkianum VLP also had DGTS (4.1%) and DGCC (7.6%): it is the first microalgae in which the simultaneous presence of these three BL has been demonstrated. The fatty acid profiles of P. paradoxa VLP and D. vlkianum VLP were close to those described for the major part of known members of the Isochrisidaceae and Pavlovaceae families, respectively, with the main differences due to the higher percentages of 18:1n9 (18.5%), 18:4n3 (12.6%) and 22:6n3 (9.3%) in the former. The corresponding fatty acid percentages for D. vlkianum VLP were 3.9%, 3.5% and 3.9%, respectively. D. vlkianum VLP showed higher 16:1n7 (16.1%) and 20:5n3 (9.4%) contents, whereas P. paradoxa VLP had significantly lower percentages of 16:1n7 (1.7%) and 20:5n3 (0.6%). Fatty acids of BL differed between both haptophytes. In DGTS from P. paradoxa VLP, 90.9% of total molecular species consisted of the 14:0-18:1 fatty acid combination, whereas DGTS from D. vlkianum showed a more diverse range of fatty acids. The unsaturation index (UI) of DGTS was lower (55.8) than that of total lipid UI (178.3) in P. paradoxa VLP. In D. vlkianum VLP the UI of DGTS was higher (146.9) and similar to that for total cell lipids (145.9). DGTA from D. vlkianum VLP had the highest UI (321.8) of all BL studied and it contained maximum levels (27.7%) of 22:6n3, representing 7.1 times the proportion of this fatty acid in the whole lipid extract. DGCC was enriched in 20:5n3 by a factor of around four in both microalgae. Due to different levels of this fatty acid in the two microalgae their respective 20:5n3 content in DGCC varied from 2.2% (P. paradoxa VLP) to 41.0% (D. vlkianum VLP) and these concentrations were also associated with UI values of 92.2 and 271.0, respectively. The specific differences in BL and fatty acids described in the present work for two phylogenetic distant Hatophytes is a contribution to a better understanding on the complex relationship between lipid composition and taxonomy of this important Division of microalgae. Present results can also be useful for a more accurate identification of primary producers in food web studies using fatty acids and intact polar lipids as trophic markers. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Canavate J.P.,Institute Investigacion Agraria y Pesquera | Armada I.,Institute Investigacion Agraria y Pesquera | Rios J.L.,CSIC - Instituto de la Grasa | Hachero-Cruzado I.,Institute Investigacion Agraria y Pesquera

Betaine lipids (BL) from ten microalgae species of the kingdoms Plantae and Chromista were identified and quantified by HPLC/ESI-TOF-MS. Diacylgyceryl-N-trimethylhomoserine (DGTS) was detected in Trebouxiophyceae and Eustigmatophyceae species, whereas Tetraselmis suecica was described as the first green algae containing diacylglyceryl-hydroxymethyl-N,N,N-trimethyl-beta-alanine (DGTA). DGTA molecular species where also characterized in Cryptophyceae species as well as in the Bacillariophyceae diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. The Mediophyceae diatom Chaetoceros gracilis had no DGTA, but contained diacylglyceryl-carboxyhydroxymethylcholine (DGCC). A principal coordinate (PCO) analysis of microalgae species revealed the existence of three main clusters around each BL type. The first PCO axis (43.9% of total variation) grouped Chlorophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae and Eustigmatophyceae species and positively correlated with DGTS. The second PCO axis (27.8% of total variation) segregated DGTA from DGCC containing species. Cryptophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and Chlorodendrophyceae were the more closely associated species to DGTA. Mediophyceae and Dinophyceae species contained DGCC as the only BL. Molecular diversity varied from the simplest DGCC composition in Gyrodinium dorsum to the highest spectrum of ten different molecular species detected for DGTA (Rhodomonas baltica) and DGCC (C. gracilis). The fatty acid profile of DGTS was very dissimilar to that of the whole lipid cell content. DGTS from Nannochloropsis gaditana was highly unsaturated respecting to total lipids, whereas in Picochlorum atomus DGTS unsaturation was nearly one half to that of total lipids. Dissimilarity between DGTA and total lipid fatty acid profile was minimum among all BL and DGTA fatty acid unsaturation was the maximum observed in the study. New DGCC molecular species enriched in 20:5 were described in Mediophyceae diatoms. Multivariate microalgae ordination using BL as descriptors revealed a higher chemotaxonomic potential than that based on their respective BL fatty acid profile. Nevertheless, taxonomic resolution was improved when fatty acids from the whole cell lipid pool were used. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Ruiz-Jarabo I.,University of Cadiz | Herrera M.,Institute Investigacion Agraria y Pesquera | Hachero-Cruzado I.,Institute Investigacion Agraria y Pesquera | Vargas-Chacoff L.,Austral University of Chile | And 3 more authors.
Aquaculture Research

The aim of this study was to carry out a comparative analysis of the osmoregulatory properties and associated energy metabolism of euryhaline flatfish species that are cultured in the world. Culture of flatfish (pleuronectiformes) requires stage- and species-dependent osmotic conditions for rearing. Additionally, geographic origin of broodstock animals is another factor to be taken into account for the culture of pleuronectiformes. Larval and juvenile stages of many flatfish species are cultured in large nurseries situated in estuaries and shallow marine habitats, where the environmental salinity is close to the iso-osmotic point of their internal milieu. This fact implicates an advantage in terms of energy savings for osmoregulatory purposes. Thus, this 'saved' energy can be derived to other physiological processes, such as somatic growth. However, this scientific presumption does not always results in an optimal growth for many flatfish species. Indeed, iso-osmotic culture conditions can evoke a higher allostatic load than that in the usual hyper-osmotic environment where flatfish species live wildly. Optimization of flatfish culture thus requires adjustments of the osmotic culture conditions to the specific osmoregulatory and metabolic demands that eventually determine the allostatic load and consequently condition growth rates. In this sense, the geographical location of aquaculture farms and the osmoregulatory-based selection of the species to be cultivated in a particular area become critical factors to be considered for optimal flatfish culture. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

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