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Griffiths A.M.,Marine Biological Association of The United Kingdom | Sims D.W.,Marine Biological Association of The United Kingdom | Sims D.W.,University of Plymouth | Cotterell S.P.,Marine Biological Association of The United Kingdom | And 15 more authors.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2010

Many sharks and skates are particularly vulnerable to overfishing because of their large size, slow growth, late maturity and low fecundity. In Europe dramatic population declines have taken place in common skate {Dipturus batis L.), one of the largest demersal fish in regional shelf seas, leading to extirpations from substantial parts of its former range. Here we report the discovery of cryptic species in common skate collected from the northeast Atlantic continental shelf. Data from nuclear microsatellite markers indicated two clearly distinct clades and phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences demonstrated monophyly of each one of them. Capture locations showed evidence of strong spatial segregation, with one taxon occurring mainly in waters off the southern British Isles and around Rockall, while the other was restricted to more northerly shelf waters. These apparently cryptic species showed overlapping substrate and depth preferences, but distributional limits were closely related to temperature gradients, potentially indicating thermal limits to their distributions. This discovery of hidden diversity within a large, critically endangered marine vertebrate demonstrates how marine biodiversity can be underestimated, even in such a relatively well-studied and heavily exploited region. © 2010 The Royal Society.

Jouffre D.,Montpellier University | Borges M.D.F.,Institute Investigacao das Pescas e Do Mar IPIMAR INRB | Bundy A.,Bedford Institute of Oceanography | Coll M.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Sciences | And 7 more authors.
ICES Journal of Marine Science | Year: 2010

Under the context of an ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF), there is keen interest in providing insights into the evolution of exploited ecosystems using simple ecosystem indicators. Many nations have long-term scientific research surveys, originally driven by conventional approaches in fisheries assessment and management. The aim of this study is to address the practical concerns linked to current objectives of monitoring simple EAF indicators, using data from surveys that were not historically designed for the purpose. Based on the results of an expert survey designed to collect expert knowledge on research surveys from scientists working on different ecosystems worldwide, a list of challenges faced during indicator estimation is highlighted, along with associated concerns and constraints. The work provides additional information useful in the interpretation of the results obtained on the state and trends of ecosystems using EAF indicators by the IndiSeas WG. Further, the related discussion provides potential pathways that could be useful for future research and development aiming to improve the ecosystem indicator approach in the operational context of EAF. The question of the utility for EAF of using historical dataseries of scientific trawl series is also discussed. Such long-term series are concluded to be useful, that they are even inescapable (since the past cannot be resamplied), and that EAF therefore brings a supplementary reason for continuing such monitoring and to incorporate new insights in how research surveys may be conducted. © 2009 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Published by Oxford Journals. All rights reserved.

Neves A.,University of Lisbon | Sequeira V.,University of Lisbon | Farias I.,Institute Investigacao das Pescas e Do Mar IPIMAR INRB | Vieira A.R.,Institute Investigacao das Pescas e Do Mar IPIMAR INRB | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom | Year: 2011

The understanding of the stock structure of a species is essential to effectively manage fisheries. Otolith shape analysis has been successfully applied in stock identification using the elliptic Fourier analysis. This method was used to assess possible differences in the otolith shape of Helicolenus dactylopterus caught around the Azores, Madeira and mainland Portugal. A total of 294 individuals ranging from 23 to 29 cm in total length, equally distributed by sex and area, were analysed. The multivariate analysis of variance performed on the otolith normalized elliptic Fourier descriptors (NEFDs) revealed significant differences for both area and sex, but no interaction was found between the two factors. In the canonical discriminant analysis an overall classification success of 69.4% and 66.7% was achieved for females and males respectively. These results suggest the usefulness of otolith shape analysis for stock differentiation of bluemouth from Portuguese waters. © Copyright Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 2010.

Link J.S.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Yemane D.,South African Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism | Shannon L.J.,University of Cape Town | Coll M.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Sciences | And 4 more authors.
ICES Journal of Marine Science | Year: 2010

The usefulness of indicators in detecting ecosystem change depends on three main criteria: the availability of data to estimate the indicator (measurability), the ability to detect change in an ecosystem (sensitivity), and the ability to link the said change in an indicator as a response to a known intervention or pressure (specificity). Here, we specifically examine the third aspect of indicator change, with an emphasis on multiple methods to explore the "relativity" of major ecosystem drivers. We use a suite of multivariate methods to explore the relationships between a pre-established set of fisheries-orientated ecosystem status indicators and the key drivers for those ecosystems (particularly emphasizing proxy indicators for fishing and the environment). The results show the relative importance among fishing and environmental factors, which differed notably across the major types of ecosystems. Yet, they also demonstrated common patterns in which most ecosystems, and indicators of ecosystem dynamics are largely driven by fisheries (landings) or human (human development index) factors, and secondarily by environmental drivers (e.g. AMO, PDO, SST). How one might utilize this empirical evidence in future efforts for ecosystem approaches to fisheries is discussed, highlighting the need to manage fisheries in the context of environmental and other human (e.g. economic) drivers. © 2009 United States Government, Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service.

Shin Y.-J.,Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Developpement | Shannon L.J.,University of Cape Town | Bundy A.,Bedford Institute of Oceanography | Coll M.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Sciences | And 24 more authors.
ICES Journal of Marine Science | Year: 2010

Background is provided to the selection of ecological indicators by the IndiSeas Working Group, and the methodology adopted for analysis and comparison of indicators across exploited marine ecosystems is documented. The selected indicators are presented, how they are calculated is explained, and the philosophy behind the comparative approach is given. The combination of selected indicators is intended to reflect different dynamics, tracking processes that display differential responses to fishing, and is meant to provide a complementary means of assessing marine ecosystem trends and states. IndiSeas relied on inputs and insights provided by the local experts from participating ecosystems, helping to understand state and trend indicators and to disentangle the effect of other potential ecosystem drivers, such as climate variability. This project showed that the use of simple and available indicators under an ecosystem approach can achieve a real, wide-reaching evaluation of marine ecosystem status caused by fishing. This is important because the socio-economics of areas where fishing activities develop differs significantly around the globe, and in many countries, insufficient data are available for complex and exhaustive analyses. © 2010 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Published by Oxford Journals. All rights reserved.

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