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Dias A.S.,New University of Lisbon | Barreiro M.G.,Instituto Nacional Of Recursos Biologicos Ip | Campos P.S.,Instituto Nacional Of Recursos Biologicos Ip | Ramalho J.C.,Unidade de Biotecnologia Ambiental FCT UNL | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science

Four genotypes of Triticum aestivum L. and Triticum turgidum subsp. durum chosen according to their genetic background diversity were subjected to heat stress after anthesis. Membrane permeability, lipid peroxidation and fatty acids (C14:0, C16:0, C16:1. c, C16:1. t, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3) were quantified. The estimation of the quantum yield of non-cyclic photosynthetic electron transport was used as well as a test system to further evaluate the implications on thylakoid functioning. It was found differences within bread and durum wheat species concerning the capability to cope with high temperatures at the stage of grain filling. The genotype Sever showed high thermal sensitivity concerning membrane lipid peroxidation and membrane permeability, as evaluated by the increased production of ethylene and MDA, as well as by the impact on TFA (at the middle term of grain filling). In the durum wheat genotypes, differences were also found, with TE 9306 displaying high membrane stability, with no increases on membrane permeability, MDA and ethylene content. In this way, the observed changes on TFA in this genotype might have constituted a mechanism to allow qualitative lipid changes, reflected in lower unsaturation level of membrane FAs which is a positive trait under high temperatures. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

Domingos S.,University of Lisbon | Domingos S.,Institute Investigacao Cientifica Tropical Ip | Scafidi P.,University of Palermo | Cardoso V.,Institute Investigacao Cientifica Tropical Ip | And 4 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science

Understanding abscission is both a biological and an agronomic challenge. Flower abscission induced independently by shade and gibberellic acid (GAc) sprays was monitored in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) growing under a soilless greenhouse system during two seasonal growing conditions, in an early and late production cycle. Physiological and metabolic changes triggered by each of the two distinct stimuli were determined. Environmental conditions exerted a significant effect on fruit set as showed by the higher natural drop rate recorded in the late production cycle with respect to the early cycle. Shade and GAc treatments increased the percentage of flower drop compared to the control, and at a similar degree, during the late production cycle. The reduction of leaf gas exchanges under shade conditions was not observed in GAc treated vines. The metabolic profile assessed in samples collected during the late cycle differently affected primary and secondary metabolisms and showed that most of the treatment-resulting variations occurred in opposite trends in inflorescences unbalanced in either hormonal or energy deficit abscission-inducing signals. Particularly concerning carbohydrates metabolism, sucrose, glucose, tricarboxylic acid metabolites and intermediates of the raffinose family oligosaccharides pathway were lower in shaded and higher in GAc samples. Altered oxidative stress remediation mechanisms and indolacetic acid (IAA) concentration were identified as abscission signatures common to both stimuli. According to the global analysis performed, we report that grape flower abscission mechanisms triggered by GAc application and C-starvation are not based on the same metabolic pathways. © 2015 Domingos, Scafidi, Cardoso, Leitao, Di Lorenzo, Oliveira and Goulao. Source

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