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Yu H.,CNRS Plant Research Laboratory | Soler M.,CNRS Plant Research Laboratory | Clemente H.S.,CNRS Plant Research Laboratory | Mila I.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | And 8 more authors.
Plant and Cell Physiology | Year: 2015

Auxin plays a pivotal role in various plant growth and development processes, including vascular differentiation. The modulation of auxin responsiveness through the auxin perception and signaling machinery is believed to be a major regulatory mechanism controlling cambium activity and wood formation. To gain more insights into the roles of key Aux/IAA gene regulators of the auxin response in these processes, we identified and characterized members of the Aux/IAA family in the genome of Eucalyptus grandis, a tree of worldwide economic importance. We found that the gene family in Eucalyptus is slightly smaller than that in Populus and Arabidopsis, but all phylogenetic groups are represented. High-throughput expression profiling of different organs and tissues highlighted several Aux/IAA genes expressed in vascular cambium and/or developing xylem, some showing differential expression in response to developmental (juvenile vs. mature) and/or to environmental (tension stress) cues. Based on the expression profiles, we selected a promising candidate gene, EgrIAA4, for functional characterization. We showed that EgrIAA4 protein is localized in the nucleus and functions as an auxin-responsive repressor. Overexpressing a stabilized version of EgrIAA4 in Arabidopsis dramatically impeded plant growth and fertility and induced auxin-insensitive phenotypes such as inhibition of primary root elongation, lateral root emergence and agravitropism. Interestingly, the lignified secondary walls of the interfascicular fibers appeared very late, whereas those of the xylary fibers were virtually undetectable, suggesting that EgrIAA4 may play crucial roles in fiber development and secondary cell wall deposition. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.


Carocha V.,CNRS Plant Research Laboratory | Carocha V.,Institute Tecnologia Of Quimica Biologica Itqb | Carocha V.,Institute Investigacao Cientifica e Tropical IICT MNE | Soler M.,CNRS Plant Research Laboratory | And 9 more authors.
New Phytologist | Year: 2015

Lignin, a major component of secondary cell walls, hinders the optimal processing of wood for industrial uses. The recent availability of the Eucalyptus grandis genome sequence allows comprehensive analysis of the genes encoding the 11 protein families specific to the lignin branch of the phenylpropanoid pathway and identification of those mainly involved in xylem developmental lignification. We performed genome-wide identification of putative members of the lignin gene families, followed by comparative phylogenetic studies focusing on bona fide clades inferred from genes functionally characterized in other species. RNA-seq and microfluid real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) expression data were used to investigate the developmental and environmental responsive expression patterns of the genes. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that 38 E. grandis genes are located in bona fide lignification clades. Four multigene families (shikimate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT), p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H), caffeate/5-hydroxyferulate O-methyltransferase (COMT) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL)) are expanded by tandem gene duplication compared with other plant species. Seventeen of the 38 genes exhibited strong, preferential expression in highly lignified tissues, probably representing the E. grandis core lignification toolbox. The identification of major genes involved in lignin biosynthesis in E. grandis, the most widely planted hardwood crop world-wide, provides the foundation for the development of biotechnology approaches to develop tree varieties with enhanced processing qualities. © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.


PubMed | University of British Columbia, Institute Investigacao Cientifica e Tropical IICT MNE, University of Pretoria, CNRS Plant Research Laboratory and Institute Tecnologia Of Quimica Biologica Itqb
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The New phytologist | Year: 2015

Lignin, a major component of secondary cell walls, hinders the optimal processing of wood for industrial uses. The recent availability of the Eucalyptus grandis genome sequence allows comprehensive analysis of the genes encoding the 11 protein families specific to the lignin branch of the phenylpropanoid pathway and identification of those mainly involved in xylem developmental lignification. We performed genome-wide identification of putative members of the lignin gene families, followed by comparative phylogenetic studies focusing on bona fide clades inferred from genes functionally characterized in other species. RNA-seq and microfluid real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) expression data were used to investigate the developmental and environmental responsive expression patterns of the genes. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that 38 E. grandis genes are located in bona fide lignification clades. Four multigene families (shikimate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT), p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H), caffeate/5-hydroxyferulate O-methyltransferase (COMT) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL)) are expanded by tandem gene duplication compared with other plant species. Seventeen of the 38 genes exhibited strong, preferential expression in highly lignified tissues, probably representing the E. grandis core lignification toolbox. The identification of major genes involved in lignin biosynthesis in E. grandis, the most widely planted hardwood crop world-wide, provides the foundation for the development of biotechnology approaches to develop tree varieties with enhanced processing qualities.

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