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Rosario, Argentina

Morosano M.E.,National University of Rosario | Masoni A.M.,National University of Rosario | Tamano V.F.,National University of Rosario | Pezzotto S.M.,Institute Inmunologia
Revista Medica de Rosario

The incidence rates of hip fractures vary between neighboring countries in the same continent, between different regions of the same country, and even among different neighborhoods in the same city. The aim of this study was to determine whether there were differences in the incidence rates of hip fracture in the 6 districts in which the city of Rosario (province of Santa Fe, Argentina: Population 1 million) is divided. We also tried to ascertain whether there are environmental (health indicators) or socioeconomic factors that could explain the differences. The study had an ecological design. Global incidence rates specific for sex and age groups, and the truncated rates were calculated and adjusted in each municipal district of Rosario. The social health indicators studied were mortality, unmet basic needs, housing, inhabitants/hectare, mothers under age 20, low birth weight, settlements, open spaces. Multivariate analysis considering rates as the dependent variable and social and health indicators, gender and age as independent variables, using Poisson regression and calculating the relative risk (rate ratio) was applied. As results of this study, we conclude that the incidence of hip fracture does not differ between population districts of Rosario, and that no population groups were identified presenting an increased risk for this complication of osteoporosis, based on their place of residence, health conditions or socioeconomic characteristics. Source

Saenz B.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Hernandez-Pando R.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Medicas Y Of La Nutricion | Fragoso G.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Bottasso O.,Institute Inmunologia | Cardenas G.,Instituto Nacional Of Neurologia Y Neurocirugia

Tuberculosis (TB) is still a common infectious disease in developing countries, but it is also re-emerging in industrialized nations due to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. In addition to bacillary virulence, the host immune response plays a major role in the development of an active disease (either as a primary infection or reactivation) and in controlling the infection. Even though several mechanisms are involved in regulating the human immune response, biological environment seems to be determinant. In this context, the integrated neuro-immune-endocrine system strongly influences TB clinical outcome. One of the most important clinical aspects of TB is shown when the infection locates in the central nervous system (CNS), in which a very different set of immune responses is induced. Herein we review several aspects of the paradoxical immune response triggered during CNS-TB infection, and discuss the implications of this response in the cerebral infection outcome. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Arruvito L.,Institute Inmunologia | Raiden S.,Hospital General de Ninos Pedro de Elizalde | Geffner J.,CONICET
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases

Purpose of review Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is the leading cause of bronchiolitis and hospitalization in young infants and causes 100000-200000 deaths annually. There is still no licensed vaccine against RSV infection and the therapeutic options are mainly supportive. Despite almost six decades of research, important knowledge gaps remain with respect to the characterization of immune mechanisms responsible for protection and pathogenesis, as well as to the identification of risk factors that predict the severity of infection. Recent findings Observations made in mouse models and young children suggest that the early innate immune response plays a major role in the pathogenesis of bronchiolitis due to RSV infection. Recent studies have improved our understanding of the role of the adaptive immune response mediated by TH1, TH2, TH17, regulatory T cells, and CD8 + T cells in the pathogenesis and resolution of RSV infection. Moreover, investigations performed in the last years have made important contributions to our knowledge of the immune response in young children, the principal risk group for severe disease. Summary A comprehensive understanding of how the protective and deleterious immune response during the course of RSV infection is induced in young children remains a challenge over the coming years. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Pezzotto S.M.,Institute Inmunologia | Morosano M.E.,National University of Rosario | Chapo G.,National University of Rosario | Menoyo I.,National University of Rosario | Masoni A.M.,National University of Rosario
Revista Medica de Rosario

Wedge fractures constitute a relevant consequence of osteoporosis due to the important morbidity and the heavy burden for the health system that they generate. The use of morphometric criteria to define them is not currently applied in our midst. Therefore, many significant vertebral deformities probably remain undetected in the daily clinical setting. The purpose of this paper was to compare two morphometric criteria to determine the prevalence of wedge vertebral fractures in dorsal spine radiographs corresponding to a sample of 164 asymptomatic, untreated postmenopausal women, and to evaluate the reliability of the measurements. Criterion 1 (Genant): A wedge fracture is defined when the vertebral body's anterior height is reduced 20% or more compared to the posterior height. Criterion 2: A fracture is defined when the relation anterior height/posterior height of each vertebral body is below a cut-point given by the average minus two standard deviations of that relation, corresponding to the same vertebral body in the whole sample. Vertebral morphometry was performed in 1,476 vertebral bodies using a Vernier-type caliper. Anterior and posterior heights as well as the superior margins were measured, completing 5,346 measurements (including 918 duplicates to evaluate inter and intra-observer variation). Cohen's Kappa coefficient and Intra-Class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) were used to test the agreement between both criteria; 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. The prevalences of vertebral wedge fracture were 25.6% for Criterion 1 (Genant), and 23.7% for Criterion 2. Agreement between both criteria was statistically significant (K=0.853, IC=0.76-0.95; p<0.001). ICC expressing intra-observer variation agreement was 0.996 (CI=0.994-0.998), significantly different from zero (p<0.00001). In the inter-observer analysis the ICC obtained was 0.994 (CI= 0.992-0.995; p<0.00001). In both instances the degree of agreement was almost perfect. The vertebral wedge fracture prevalences derived from both criteria are not satistically different, and are similar to those reported from other places worldwide. Our present data indicate that the less complex Genant's criterion would be very useful for the evaluation of wedge vertebral deformities in the everyday clinical setting. Source

Moreno M.,Consulta de Otorrinolaringologia | Tassinari P.,Institute Inmunologia
Informe Medico

Oral antihistaminics can be classified into first and second generation agents, according to its pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and adverse events profile. Mast cells and basophil leukocytes store histamine within intracellular granules, releasing this amine upon stimulation by IgE binding to the cell membrane. Histamine exerts its effects through interaction with four different receptors subtypes: H1, H2, H3 and H4, coupled to a G protein. H1 receptors are found in endothelial and smooth muscle vascular cells, promoting histamine-mediated vasodilation and vascular permeability; however rhinorrohea is also stimulated by the parasympathetic innervation of secretory glands. On the other hand, H2 receptors present in submucous glands and epithelial cells of nasal mucosae also contribute to rhinitis symptoms. There are two therapeutic categories of H1 antihistaminics; first and second generation compounds; the later ones were developed 1980 and are poorly sedative; the first group can cross the blood brain barrier because of its lipophylicity and have a pronounced sedative property. Second generation antihistaminics reduce both phases of the allergic reaction, showing antiallergic and anti-inflammatory activity mediated by calcium channel blocking properties, exerted on mast cells and basophil leukocytes, which in turn inhibit expression of intercellular-1 adhesion molecule in nasal epithelia. Source

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