Barrios C.,King's College London |
Barrios C.,Hospital Del Mar Institute Mar Dinvestigacions Mediques |
Spector T.D.,King's College London |
Menni C.,King's College London
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics | Year: 2016
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health burden and to date traditional biomarkers of renal function (such as serum creatinine and cystatin C) are unable to identify at-risk individuals before the disease process is well under way. To help preventive strategies and maximize the potential for effective interventions, it is important to characterise the molecular changes that take place in the development of renal damage. Metabolomics is a promising tool to identify markers of renal disease since the kidneys are involved in the handling of major biochemical classes of metabolites. These metabolite levels capture a snap-shot of the metabolic profile of the individual, allowing for the potential identification of early biomarkers, and the monitoring of real-time kidney function. In this review, we describe the current status of the identification of blood/urine/faecal metabolic biomarkers in different entities of kidney diseases including: acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, renal transplant, diabetic nephropathy and other disorders. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Inc.