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Madrid, Spain

Architectonic and structural forms, both preserved and ruined, are studied in this paper, as well as constructive customs and decorative solutions, in a group of tufa-stone pendentive domed churches from Álava, La Rioja and Burgos provinces. In a first step buildings are analyzed; secondly, decorative and constructive production is studied; and finally, datation of High Middle Age complex-between second half of the Ninth Century and the beginning of Tenth Century-is discussed since obtained data. These architectonic, constructive and decorative systems imply the existence of various productive groups which define a singular ensemble during the period of time and for the place in which this ensemble was active. © 2015 CSIC. Source


Blanco-Gonzalez A.,Durham University | Lopez-Saez J.A.,Institute Historia
Environmental Archaeology | Year: 2013

This study addresses the earliest strategies of permanent occupation in the mountainous regions bordering Northern Meseta in inland Iberia. This piece of work gathers together and discusses archaeological information about settlement in the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age and previously published high-resolution palynological cores from three study areas. Its major goal is to assess both archaeological and pollen records in order to gain a better understanding of the dynamics of occupation and transformation of these upland settings. Until cal 700 BC there are no clear signs of permanence in the highlands surrounding the Duero basin, but from that point onwards various initiatives of small-scale spontaneous colonisation have been identified. Colonisation in the Iron Age involved pastoralism, cereal agriculture and a significant use of forestry resources, causing a major anthropogenic impact with irreversible consequences. The outlined account constitutes the first synthetic overview at a macro-regional scale on the beginnings of the integrated and diversified strategies implemented in these upland regions. © Association for Environmental Archaeology 2013. Source


Pinto-Llona A.C.,Institute Historia
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | Year: 2013

Cave bears Ursus spelaeus are known from many limestone caves throughout the European Pleistocene. Despite the enormous quantities of fossils unearthed, many aspects of the cave bear ecology are still little known. Cave bear remains appear almost always with an array of variously sized tooth punctures, and the evidence from tooth mark types and sizes at several cave bear sites studied here indicates that cave bears themselves were responsible for the scavenging modifications recorded at these cave bear-only sites. Anatomical evidence for cave bear diet indicates that they had a tough-plant based diet and in addition, their powerful front legs suggest an enhanced digging capability that has sometimes been thought to relate to digging for tubers. Dental microwear analysis (DMA) approaches fossil and extant diets by comparing tooth wear for animals of known diet with that shown by fossils. Scanning electron microscope micrographs were prepared and the microwear features were measured. The results show differences in wear patterns between brown bears and cave bears from several locations and chronologies across northern Spain. There is no indication that these cave bears ate tubers or any food contaminated by soil; but the dental microwear observed indicates that they had a greater degree of bone consumption compared with brown bears. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Aguilera M.,University of Barcelona | Ferrio J.P.,University of Lleida | Perez G.,Institute Historia | Araus J.L.,University of Barcelona | Voltas J.,University of Lleida
Journal of Quaternary Science | Year: 2012

Precipitation has been of utmost importance in shaping the evolution of landscapes and human settlements in the Mediterranean. However, information on seasonal precipitation patterns through the Holocene is scarce. This study attempts to quantify the evolution of seasonal precipitation in the East Iberian Peninsula (5000 BC to AD 600) based on the carbon isotope composition (δ 13C) of archaeobotanical remains. Data on Holm oak, Aleppo pine and small-grain cereals were combined, and precipitation was inferred from models relating present-day records to the δ 13C of modern samples. Subsequently, charred grains were used as a proxy for ancient moisture during April-May, whereas oak and pine charcoals provided complementary rainfall estimates for September-December and January-August, respectively. The results reveal aridity changes throughout the Holocene in the western Mediterranean. Past spring-summer precipitation was consistently higher than at present. In contrast, autumn and early winter precipitation showed stronger fluctuations, particularly during the first millennium BC, and often exhibited values below those of the present. The high contribution of autumn precipitation to the annual water budget, typical of the present Mediterranean climate, was definitively established at the beginning of the current era. This study shows how a combination of species holding complementary environmental signals can contribute to a wider knowledge of local precipitation dynamics. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Barranco V.,CSIC - National Center for Metallurgical Research | Carmona N.,CSIC - National Center for Metallurgical Research | Galvan J.C.,CSIC - National Center for Metallurgical Research | Grobelny M.,Institute of Precision Mechanics | And 2 more authors.
Progress in Organic Coatings | Year: 2010

The behaviour/resistance of four optimised sol-gel coating systems (inorganic, hybrid organic-inorganic, containing zirconium ions and containing cerium ions) against corrosion of AZ91 magnesium alloy were studied. The coatings obtained by the sol-gel process were evaluated as autonomous protective coatings as well as a pre-treatment prior to acrylic top coat. The coating obtained from tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and diethoxydimethylsilane (DEDMS) as precursors and doped with Ce3+ was especially effective as pre-treatment for a final acrylic coating. For non-defected coating the impedance modulus has not changed during the time of immersion (7 days) in 0.5 M Na2SO4. An inhibition of coating delamination at the defect of the acrylic coating was recorded by means of LEIS. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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