Institute Geografia

Valparaíso, Chile

Institute Geografia

Valparaíso, Chile
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Fuentes F.F.,Arturo Prat University | Bazile D.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Bazile D.,Institute Geografia | Bhargava A.,University of Lucknow | Martinez E.A.,Católica del Norte University
Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2012

Quinoa cultivation in Chile presents an ancient and active complex of geographic, climatic, social and cultural interactions that has determined its current biodiversity in the three main growing zones (north, central and south). Importantly, these interactions involve the participation of farmers, whose activities are at the base of seed exchange networks due to their knowledge and in situ conservation of genetic diversity. The present study reports how a better understanding of farmers' seed exchanges and local production practices could impact the genetic structure and diversity of quinoa at national scale in Chile. Using field interviews and characterization of 20 microsatellite genetic markers in a multi-origin set of 34 quinoa accessions representative of Chile and the South American region, the phenetic analysis of germplasm was consistent with the current classification of quinoa ecotypes present in Chile and Andean zone. This allowed the identification of five populations, which were represented by quinoa of Salares (northern Chile), Coastal/Lowlands (central and southern Chile), Highlands (Peru, Bolivia and Argentina) and Inter-Andean Valleys (Ecuador and Colombia). The highly informative quality of the markers used revealed a wide genetic diversity among main growing areas in Chile, which correlated well with natural geographical-edaphic-climatic and social-linguistic context to the expansion of quinoa biodiversity. Additionally, in addition to ancient seed exchanges, this process is still governed by the diverse agricultural practices of Andean farmers. Genetic erosion is considered an imminent risk due to small-scale farming, where the influence of increased migration of people to urban systems and export-driven changes to the agro-ecosystems may further reduce the diversity of quinoa plants in cultivation. © Cambridge University Press 2012.

Oleschko K.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Korvin G.,King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals | Flores L.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Brambila F.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | And 5 more authors.
Geoderma | Year: 2010

We present a novel approach to multiscale fractal image analysis for monitoring the dynamics of the soil pore/solid network roughness due to moisture content changes. Roughness of the gray-level probability density function (PDF) of subsequent images of the drying soil was expressed in terms of its Hurst exponent (HPDF), which correlated significantly with the soil dielectric permittivity and gravimetric water content, as well as with micro-horizon depth and the temporal progress of drying. We documented an intermittent character of the water content dynamics, correlating with oscillations of the pore/solid interface roughness. Our technique of PDF roughness analysis of digital images, exemplified here for soil moisture monitoring, can be applied for monitoring the other complex systems, for instance plant growth in greenhouse. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.

By the mid nineteenth century, the telegraph became one of the technological networks with greater territorial penetration in European and United States economies. In a parallel fashion, and with the appropriate technical considerations, in this paper I examine one of such local networks from a geographical perspective: the Mexican telegraph network and its transition from a private, regional network to a public, country-wide one, during the crucial period from 1850 to 1910. The manner in which this technology was arranged further encouraged the centrality of Mexico City, the state modernization, and the surveillance and integration of the country's territory.

Aguirre Gomez R.,Institute Geografia
Investigaciones Geograficas | Year: 2014

This paper shows a hyperspectral optical analysis of Zumpango Lake, relict of one of the lakes that formerly filled the Basin of Mexico. The spectral signatures are dominated by the presence of phytoplankton and submerged vegetation. Integrated spectral curves have a good statistical correlation with chlorophyll a concentration values. It indicates that submerged vegetation water, mainly hyacinth (Eichhornia spp) and duckweed (Lemna sp), and phytoplankton are homogeneously distributed in the water body, which confers its characteristics of eutrophication.

Currently, major Latin-American cities are regenerating their urban centres. After decades of decline, demand for the revival of run down, but historically important, areas is accompanied by the negative social consequences that result from regeneration: gentrication and displacement of the most poor. Therefore, the search for urban regeneration policies preserving social justice is of major interest. This paper focuses on the experience of mutual-aid housing cooperatives in Montevideo and Buenos Aires, which have had a role in recent historical city centr e renewal. It is proposed here that the housing cooperatives show a way of renewal without the displacement of low income tenants.

Velazquez G.A.,Institute Geografia | Celemin J.P.,Institute Geografia
BELGEO | Year: 2014

To evaluate the population Quality of Life, several factors should be considered, including the environmental dimension, which has gained notorious attention in the study of this subject. The development and use of indices has become increasingly necessary in order to understand and properly grasp the problems linked to the different dimension associated with population wellbeing. An Environmental Quality Index (EQI) made up of twenty-three variables grouped into three dimensions known as: a) nature-based recreation resources, b) socially constructed resources, and c) environmental problems is applied to the 511 departments of Argentina in 2010. The first dimension of the index yields a very asymmetric distribution along the Argentine territory, and evidences a strong deficit in the metropolitan region of Buenos Aires city, the capital of the country. The second dimension exhibits greater relative presence in large and mid-sized cities and in the metropolitan region of Buenos Aires. At last, the presence of environmental problems is strongly showed to large urban areas. © NCG with the SRBG.

The study area is the river Chiquito-Barranca del Muerto watershed that covers 111 km2 and lies on the southwestern flank of Pico de Orizaba volcano. The watershed was studied by using aerial photographs of different years and fieldwork with an adaptation of the Landslide Hazard Zonation Protocol of the Washington State Department of Natural Resources, USA. 571 gravitational processes of six types were recognized: shallow, debris-avalanche and deep, debris flows and erthflows, and rock falls. We defined 12 major landforms on which gravitational processes occur: in ner gorges, headwalls, active scarps of deep-seated landslides, meanders, plains, three types of hillslopes classified by its gradient: low, moderate, and high, rockfall slopes, non-ruleidentified inner gorges, non-rule-identified headwalls, and non-rule-identified converging hillslopes. The potential gravitational processes were classified into three hazard ranges: low, high, and very high. Gravitational processes occur primarily in moderate gradient hillslopes, non-rule-identified inner gorges, inner gorges, and low-gradient hillslopes. The stability is low for plains and low gradient hillslopes, high for moderate and steep gradient hillslopes, and very high for the remaining eight landforms.

In this article we analyzed the conflicts by the water in the state of Morelos, Mexico, between 2000 and 2010. The article has the intention to make a geographic characterization according to a systematization of national and local journalistic notes, referred to the conflicts by the water in Morelos. With the information of journalistic notes we generated a data base and we systematized the information, later we made an analysis of hierarchic conglomerates and space association to find geographic patterns of distribution of conflicts by the water.

The different biophysical factors that have influenced the floods and subsidence incidence in the delegation of Iztapalapa, Distrito Federal, Central Mexico were considered. The analysis taken into account a procedure based on in cartographic overlaying and evaluation of factor weights. The hazard level was evaluated starting from the consideration of the variables that allow describing the flood characteristics (frequency, maximum height and maximum extend) and on the other hand, the variables that have influence in the presence of them (subsidence magnitude, slope inclination and, hydraulic infrastructure capacity). As well, the analysis was based on the meteorological analysis to determine its influence in the magnitude of floods, as well as in the fieldwork for checking and confirmation of results. Of the seventeen colonies evaluated in field, eight of them have the very dangerous level of floods, corresponding to 6% of the delegation area. These areas are located to the east, coinciding spacely with the places of more subsidence level or and with the hydraulic-collector systems of more spill volume. Most of floods are from rain origin; however, this variable was not decisive in their spatial presence.

The present article discusses the importance of community participation in workshops conducted in the oil municipalities of Region V North, Chiapas, as part of the process of drawing up an environmental agenda for the region. The main concerns of the population are analysed, including those relating to changes in land use caused by livestock production and their effects on the environment, as well as those related to the oil industry. The article also discusses the lack of action on the part of the various governmental agencies in resolving the social, economic and environmental problems associated with the municipalities; this lack of action can affect the implementation of an environmental proposal.

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