Institute Geociencias Igeo Csic Ucm

Melilla, Spain

Institute Geociencias Igeo Csic Ucm

Melilla, Spain
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Martinez-Martinez J.,University of Alicante | Martinez-Martinez J.,Instituto Geologico Y Minero Of Espana Igme | Benavente D.,University of Alicante | Jimenez Gutierrez S.,Institute Ecologia Litoral | And 2 more authors.
Building and Environment | Year: 2017

The Nueva Tabarca fortress constitutes an exceptional example of baroque architectural heritage. However, the aggressiveness of the local environment and the low suitability of the used building stone cause their fast deterioration. The hydro-mechanical properties of the building stones, the characteristics of their porous system (open porosity and pore size distribution), the global climate of the island and the particular microenvironmental conditions of each studied monument explain the weathering process acting on the porous limestone of Nueva Tabarca. Results reveal that Halite crystallization and wind erosion are the main weathering agents. On the one hand, wind plays a critical weathering action because it controls the salt crystallization process, the abrasion by wind-blown particles, as well as the wind-driven rain impact. Different weathering forms are related to each erosion mechanism. On the other hand, the relative humidity in the island determines the agressiveness of the halite crystallization process. Salt damage activity was calculated quantifying not only the number of halite crystallization-dissolution transitions, but also the duration of the driest periods. Finally, a novel parameter (Equivalent Years, Yeq) is defined in order to quantify the representativeness of standarized artificial ageing tests. Yeq expresses the number of years of natural ageing required for achieving the same weathered state of rocks after laboratory procedures. A wide range of Yeq values are obtained for the studied rocks (from 8 to 165 years), showing a strong dependency with both the exposure time as well as the agressiveness of the environment. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Coronado I.,Complutense University of Madrid | Fernandez-Martinez E.,University of León | Rodriguez S.,Complutense University of Madrid | Rodriguez S.,Institute Geociencias Igeo Csic Ucm | Tourneur F.,Pierres et Marbres de Wallonie
Geobiology | Year: 2015

The taxonomic assignation and ecological implications of the genus Syringoalcyon Termier & Termier, 1945 have been a palaeontological problem for a long time. Carboniferous material from Morocco and Spain has been studied using a biomineralogical approach by means of petrographic microscopy, SEM, AFM, EMPA and CIP microscopy analysis. Detailed morphological, structural, chemical composition and crystallographic data enable a deeper understanding of the nature of Syringoalcyon. The coral walls and the so-called epithecal scales exhibit conspicuous differences in microstructure (lamellae and holacanthine fibres in the coral vs. single crystal in scales), nanostructure (pill-shaped vs. granule-shaped nanocrystals), composition (LMC vs. HMC) and crystallographic orientation. The results of these analyses imply that Syringoalcyon is an association between the tabulate coral Syringopora and an epibiont. They also suggest that the epibiont was an alcyonarian (a rare occurrence in the fossil record) that was attached to the syringoporoid. This work highlights the utility of the biomineralizational approaches for solving palaeontological problems, such as systematic affinities, and for advancing knowledge of the evolution of biocrystallization processes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Chiodo G.,Complutense University of Madrid | Marsh D.R.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Garcia-Herrera R.,Complutense University of Madrid | Garcia-Herrera R.,Institute Geociencias IGEO CSIC UCM | And 2 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2014

We investigate the relative role of volcanic eruptions, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in the quasi-decadal signal in the tropical stratosphere with regard to temperature and ozone commonly attributed to the 11\unit{yr} solar cycle. For this purpose, we perform transient simulations with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model forced from 1960 to 2004 with an 11 yr solar cycle in irradiance and different combinations of other forcings. An improved multiple linear regression technique is used to diagnose the 11 yr solar signal in the simulations. One set of simulations includes all observed forcings, and is thereby aimed at closely reproducing observations. Three idealized sets exclude ENSO variability, volcanic aerosol forcing, and QBO in tropical stratospheric winds, respectively. Differences in the derived solar response in the tropical stratosphere in the four sets quantify the impact of ENSO, volcanic events and the QBO in attributing quasi-decadal changes to the solar cycle in the model simulations. The novel regression approach shows that most of the apparent solar-induced lower-stratospheric temperature and ozone increase diagnosed in the simulations with all observed forcings is due to two major volcanic eruptions (i.e., El Chichón in 1982 and Mt. Pinatubo in 1991). This is caused by the alignment of these eruptions with periods of high solar activity. While it is feasible to detect a robust solar signal in the middle and upper tropical stratosphere, this is not the case in the tropical lower stratosphere, at least in a 45 yr simulation. The present results suggest that in the tropical lower stratosphere, the portion of decadal variability that can be unambiguously linked to the solar cycle may be smaller than previously thought. © Author(s) 2014.

Rossi C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Mertz-Kraus R.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Osete M.-L.,Complutense University of Madrid | Osete M.-L.,Institute Geociencias IGEO CSIC UCM
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2014

To evaluate possible connections between climate and the Earth's magnetic field, we examine paleoclimate proxies in a stalagmite (PA-8) recording the Blake excursion (~112-~116.4ka) from Cobre cave (N Spain). Trace element, δ13C, δ18O, δ234U, fluorescent lamination, growth rate, and paleomagnetic records were synchronized using a floating lamina-counted chronology constrained by U-Th dates, providing a high-resolution multi-proxy paleoclimate record for MIS 5d. The alpine cave setting and the combination of proxies contributed to improve the confidence of the paleoclimatic interpretation. Periods of relatively warm and humid climate likely favored forest development and resulted in high speleothem growth rates, arguably annual fluorescent laminae, low δ13C and [Mg], and increased [Sr] and [Ba]. Colder periods limited soil activity and drip water availability, leading to reduced speleothem growth, poor development of fluorescent lamination, enhanced water-rock interaction leading to increased [Mg], δ13C, and δ234U, and episodic flooding. In the coldest and driest period recorded, evaporation caused simultaneous 18O and 13C enrichments and perturbed the trace element patterns. The Blake took place in a relatively warm interestadial at the inception of the Last Glacial period, but during a global cooling trend recorded in PA-8 by an overall decrease of δ18O and growth rate and increasing [Mg]. That trend culminated in the cessation of growth between ~112 and ~101ka likely due to the onset of local glaciation correlated with Greenland stadial 25. That trend is consistent with a link between low geomagnetic intensity and climate cooling, but it does not prove it. Shorter term changes in relative paleointensity (RPI) relate to climate changes recorded in PA-8, particularly a prominent RPI low from ~114.5 to ~113ka coincident with a significant cooling indicated by all proxy records, suggesting a link between geomagnetic intensity and climate at millennial time scales. Although the reliability of such inference is limited by the inferior resolution of the paleomagnetic data and a possible contamination of the RPI data by unaccounted changes in magnetite concentration, the agreement of those data with the marine record of cosmogenic Be suggests that the RPI record of PA-8 may reflect truly geomagnetic intensity variations. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Perez-Monserrat E.M.,Institute Geociencias IGEO CSIC UCM | Fort R.,Institute Geociencias IGEO CSIC UCM | Lopez-Arce P.,Institute Geociencias IGEO CSIC UCM | de Buergo M.A.,Institute Geociencias IGEO CSIC UCM | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the European Ceramic Society | Year: 2013

This study is focuses on the characterisation of the pastes and enamels constituents of the decorative ceramics, cladding ceramics and mosaic tiles, covering the façades and the central garden fountain of the Former Workers Hospital of Maudes at Madrid, Spain. The structural bricks of the inner fabric walls and those used at the courtyards are also studied. Both the original and restoration materials are analysed petrographically and mineralogically and the elemental composition of the enamel is determined. The major textural and compositional variations identified in the materials are mainly due to differences in the clay raw materials and additives used, as well as to the manufacturing processes, specially firing temperatures. In addition to comparing the results of the analyses conducted to the information obtained from the references consulted, the study provides unknown data on the raw materials and technologies involved in manufacturing the ceramic materials found in a heritage building. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Coronado I.,Complutense University of Madrid | Coronado I.,Institute Geociencias Igeo Csic Ucm | Perez-Huerta A.,University of Alabama | Rodriguez S.,Complutense University of Madrid | Rodriguez S.,Institute Geociencias Igeo Csic Ucm
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | Year: 2013

Corals are significant components of fossil marine communities and important for paleoenvironmental reconstructions throughout the Phanerozoic. Despite their abundance and diversity in Paleozoic rocks, the presence, and criteria for the recognition of primary, biogenic skeletal structures is highly controversial. The aim of this study is a multilevel analysis of the diverse morphological elements that form well-preserved specimens of the Carboniferous Multithecopora tabulate coral skeleton. Results indicate that samples are minimally altered by diagenesis, but most importantly that skeletal structures are biogenic in nature, and similar to those of modern and fossil carbonate-producing organisms. Nano- and microcrystals form a complex framework of different domains of crystal morphologies that comprise the bulk of the skeleton in Multithecopora. These domains are thought to be the possible phenotypic response of the genotype of these corals, and had a structural importance during the life of the organism. Overall, this study sheds light for a better understanding on the controversy that exists about the biogenic or abiogenic origin of the Paleozoic coral microstructures. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Lopez-Guerrero P.,Complutense University of Madrid | Lopez-Guerrero P.,Institute Geociencias IGEO CSIC UCM | Garcia-Paredes I.,Institute Geociencias IGEO CSIC UCM | Garcia-Paredes I.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology | Year: 2013

The oldest record of Cricetodon (Cricetidae, Rodentia, Mammalia) from the Aragonian type area (Calatayud-Daroca Basin, Zaragoza, Spain) is described. The remains from Las Umbrías (LUM) and Las Planas (LP) sections are attributed to Cricetodon soriae, described in the locality Somosaguas N (SOMN) from the Madrid Basin (biozone E, MN5). The studied material (including 52 jugal teeth) belongs to eight localities spanning a time interval from 14.06 to 13.80 Ma, covering the entire biozone E. A morphometric analysis of the Calatayud-Daroca material provides the most specific and detailed descriptions of C. soriae until now. New complete descriptions of the type material from SOMN and an emended diagnosis of C. soriae are presented. Comparisons with all the species of Cricetodon described to date have been made. Differences between Cricetodon aureus and Cricetodon meini are discussed; the results yielded by the study of more than 100 upper third molars from Vieux-Collonges make it possible, for the first time, to distinguish between those of C. aureus and C. meini, and to compare them both with C. soriae. The presence of common characteristics indicates a closer relationship of C. soriae with the species of Cricetodon from Asia Minor than with the first representatives of Cricetodon in central and eastern Europe. The distribution of C. soriae in the Iberian Peninsula is coincident with the global cooling event and the increasing in aridity in southwestern Europe, and the faunal dispersion event called Conohyus/Pliopitechus that took place during the local biozone E. © 2013 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology.

Gomez-Villalba L.S.,Institute Geociencias IGEO CSIC UCM | Lopez-Arce P.,Institute Geociencias IGEO CSIC UCM | Fort R.,Institute Geociencias IGEO CSIC UCM
Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing | Year: 2012

A study of the stability of calcium carbonate polymorphs formed as a result of the carbonation process from an alcoholic colloidal solution of nanocrystals of Ca(OH) 2 in low relative humidity (RH) conditions (33% and 54% RH) is presented in this research. The crystalline behavior, the time dependence of nucleation and the phases' transformations as a result of exposure to low humidity conditions are evaluated. The carbonation process is slow, starting with the nucleation of amorphous calcium carbonate, associated to an amorphization process that affects both the portlandite (Ca(OH) 2) and the initial unstable CaCO 3 polymorphs. The excess of alcohol in the solution decreases the surface tension and the nucleation is accelerated by the fast evaporation of the solvent, which avoids the particles to diffuse to their lowest energy sites, giving smaller particles with lower crystallinity as RH decreases. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Gomez-Villalba L.S.,Institute Geociencias IGEO CSIC UCM | Lopez-Arce P.,Institute Geociencias IGEO CSIC UCM | De Buergo M.A.,Institute Geociencias IGEO CSIC UCM | Fort R.,Institute Geociencias IGEO CSIC UCM
Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing | Year: 2011

The effect of high relative humidity (90% and 75% RH) on phase transformation and stability of CaCO3 polymorphs has been studied based on the structural and morphological changes from a colloidal solution based on Ca(OH)2 nanocrystals. Carbonation process has been confirmed indicating differences in nucleation and stability of CaCO3 polymorphs as a function of RH. Local fluctuations in the water/alcohol ratio significantly affect the precipitation/ dissolution of anhydrous and hydrated polymorphs that are reflected in the particle size. Changes in lattice parameters and particle size are related to surface tension fluctuations, release of residual water and time of exposure. These results highly contribute to evaluate the stability of the Ca(OH)2nanoparticles in high humidity conditions. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

Vazquez-Calvo C.,Institute Geociencias IGEO CSIC UCM | Alvarez De Buergo M.,Institute Geociencias IGEO CSIC UCM | Fort R.,Institute Geociencias IGEO CSIC UCM | Varas-Muriel M.J.,Institute Geociencias IGEO CSIC UCM
Journal of Geophysics and Engineering | Year: 2012

The roughness of stone surface was measured, before and after bead blasting-based cleaning methods, to select the most efficient one to be used in masonry and stonework of specific areas of the Cathedral of Segovia (Spain). These types of cleaning methods can, besides the removal of soiling and surface deposits, leave a rougher surface, which would mean higher and more rapid water retention and deposit accumulation due to a specific surface increase, therefore accelerating stone decay. Or, in contrast, the cleaning method can be so aggressive that it can smooth the surface by reducing its roughness, a fact that usually corresponds to excessive material removal - soot and deposits - but also part of the stone substrate. Roughness results were complemented with scanning electron microscopy observations and analyses and colour measurements. Finally, it was possible to select the best cleaning method among the six that were analysed, for different areas and different stone materials. Therefore, this study confirms the measurement of surface roughness as a reliable test to determine the suitability of stone cleaning methods; it is a non-destructive technique, portable and friendly to use, which can help us to rapidly assess - together with other techniques - the efficacy and aggressiveness of the stone cleaning method. © 2012 Sinopec Geophysical Research Institute.

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