Institute Ganaderia Of Montana

Leon, Spain

Institute Ganaderia Of Montana

Leon, Spain
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Martinez-Valladares M.,Institute Ganaderia Of Montana | Rojo-Vazquez F.A.,Institute Ganaderia Of Montana
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2012

Infection by gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in grazing sheep can negatively influence the growth of lambs and milk yield. In the current study we evaluated the effect of high and low levels of infection with Teladorsagia circumcincta on production parameters of lactating ewes. Two groups of ewes were infected with 50,000 T. circumcincta third stage larvae (L3) 30 days before lambing. To obtain a high level of infection, Group HI was challenged with 30,000 L3 30 days post-partum (pp) and again 90 days pp with the same dose. The low infection group (LI) was treated with an intraruminal controlled-release albendazole bolus one-month pp. We determined the effect of the differing parasite loads on milk yield, milk composition, weight gain, and body condition (BC). Throughout the trial the milk yield was higher in the LI group and, consequently, at the end of the lactation, this group produced 11.1% more milk than the HI group. In the final third of lactation there was an overall increase in milk fat, protein, and lactose although the factor most affected by infection level was the protein percentage, with an increment of 11.9% in the HI group. The somatic cell counts remained low during the experiment indicating the absence of udder infection. Regarding weight and BC, significant differences were found only in BC although LI ewes weighed 2% more than the HI group. In conclusion, a low level of GIN infection in sheep leads to a better BC and a higher milk production with high protein percentage. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Martinez-Valladares M.,Institute Ganaderia Of Montana | Cordero-Perez C.,Institute Ganaderia Of Montana | Rojo-Vazquez F.A.,Institute Ganaderia Of Montana
Parasitology Research | Year: 2012

The aim of this work was to know the anthelmintic resistance (AR) status of a Spanish sheep flock infected by gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) and the possible cross resistance among anthelmintics of the macrocyclic lactones (ML) family. The Faecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT) was carried out to check the efficacy of albendazole (Zodalben®), levamisole (LEV) (Endex®) and an oral formulation of ivermectin (IVM) (Oramec®), at the recommended dose rates. Then, the study was extended to check the cross resistance between drugs of the ML family: injectable IVM (Ivomec®), oral moxidectin (Cydectin®), injectable moxidectin (Biodectin®) and doramectin (Dectomax®), at the recommended dose rates. The GIN species were identified after faecal cultures in all groups. The FECRT showed the resistance of a Teladorsagia circumcincta isolate against LEV (39-58%), IVM (88-92%) and doramectin (85%). This study is the first report to confirm the side resistance between these MLs, which belong to the avermectin chemical group, in a Spanish sheep flock. The in vitro efficacy of LEV and IVM was measured by the Larval Feeding Inhibition Assay (LFIA) using the IC 50 measurement (concentration needed to inhibit the ingestion of 50% L1). The values of the multidrug resistant isolate were 0.25 μg/ml for LEV and 3 ng/ml for IVM. Both results were higher than the values obtained with a susceptible isolate, which could be indicative of AR. However, further research examining the response of a greater range of susceptible and resistant nematodes isolates should be carried out to establish a discrimination threshold. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

Aldai N.,University of the Basque Country | Lavin P.,Institute Ganaderia Of Montana | Kramer J.K.G.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Jaroso R.,Institute Ganaderia Of Montana | Mantecon A.R.,Institute Ganaderia Of Montana
Meat Science | Year: 2012

This study was designed to compare the quality of veal produced from 'Tudanca × Charolais' cross (n = 6) and Limousin (n = 6) breeds when allowed to feed freely on mountain pastures and suckle naturally from birth to 7. months of age. After 80. days of age calves also had access to concentrate (maximum of 3. kg/day), while mothers did not. At slaughter, Limousin calves were heavier (P< 0.01) and provided better carcass yield (P< 0.05) and conformation (P< 0.001) than Tudanca calves. Tudanca beef provided higher fat content (P< 0.05) was less tough (P< 0.05), and was scored as more tender and juicy (P< 0.1) with higher acceptability than Limousin beef (P< 0.1). In general, Tudanca had a better fatty acid profile than Limousin beef, especially in terms of the content of polyunsaturated (P< 0.05), long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (P< 0.05) and their n-6/n-3 ratios (P< 0.1), as well as vaccenic acid (P< 0.1) and the overall trans-18:1 isomer profile. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Reichardt N.,University of Aberdeen | Reichardt N.,University of Glasgow | Duncan S.H.,University of Aberdeen | Young P.,University of Aberdeen | And 7 more authors.
ISME Journal | Year: 2014

Propionate is produced in the human large intestine by microbial fermentation and may help maintain human health. We have examined the distribution of three different pathways used by bacteria for propionate formation using genomic and metagenomic analysis of the human gut microbiota and by designing degenerate primer sets for the detection of diagnostic genes for these pathways. Degenerate primers for the acrylate pathway (detecting the lcdA gene, encoding lactoyl-CoA dehydratase) together with metagenomic mining revealed that this pathway is restricted to only a few human colonic species within the Lachnospiraceae and Negativicutes. The operation of this pathway for lactate utilisation in Coprococcus catus (Lachnospiraceae) was confirmed using stable isotope labelling. The propanediol pathway that processes deoxy sugars such as fucose and rhamnose was more abundant within the Lachnospiraceae (based on the pduP gene, which encodes propionaldehyde dehydrogenase), occurring in relatives of Ruminococcus obeum and in Roseburia inulinivorans. The dominant source of propionate from hexose sugars, however, was concluded to be the succinate pathway, as indicated by the widespread distribution of the mmdA gene that encodes methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase in the Bacteroidetes and in many Negativicutes. In general, the capacity to produce propionate or butyrate from hexose sugars resided in different species, although two species of Lachnospiraceae (C. catus and R. inulinivorans) are now known to be able to switch from butyrate to propionate production on different substrates. A better understanding of the microbial ecology of short-chain fatty acid formation may allow modulation of propionate formation by the human gut microbiota. © 2014 International Society for Microbial Ecology. All rights reserved.

Dugan M.E.R.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Aldai N.,Institute Ganaderia Of Montana | Aalhus J.L.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Rolland D.C.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Kramer J.K.G.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
Canadian Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2011

Trans fatty acids are found naturally in foods, particularly in those derived from ruminant animals, such as beef and dairy cattle. Over the past few decades, human consumption of trans fatty acids has increased, but this has been mainly from products containing partially hydrogenated vegetable oils. The correlation of trans fatty acid consumption with diseases such as coronary heart disease has been cause for concern, and led to recommendations to reduce their consumption. Trans fatty acids, however, have differing effects on human health. Therefore, in foods produced from ruminant animals, it is important to know their trans fatty acid composition, and how to enrich or deplete fatty acids that have positive or negative health effects. This review will cover the analysis of trans fatty acids in beef, their origin, how to manipulate their concentrations, and give a brief overview of their health effects.

Nassu R.T.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Dugan M.E.R.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | He M.L.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | He M.L.,University of Saskatchewan | And 5 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2011

This study was conducted to investigate changes in fatty acid profiles of beef cows fed grass hay or barley silage based diets, with or without flaxseed supplementation. Both flaxseed and hay feeding increased levels of α-linolenic acid (LNA; 18:3n-3) in longissimus thoracis and backfat (P<0.001). A forage type by flaxseed level interaction was observed for most LNA biohydrogenation intermediates (P<0.05) that indicated feeding hay combined with flaxseed led to the greatest levels of total conjugated linolenic acid, total conjugated linoleic acid, total non-conjugated dienes and total trans-18:1. Predominant biohydrogenation intermediates included t11,. c15-18:2, rumenic acid (c9,t11-18:2) and vaccenic acid (t11-18:1). © 2011.

Martinez-Valladares M.,Institute Ganaderia Of Montana | Rojo-Vazquez F.A.,Institute Ganaderia Of Montana | Rojo-Vazquez F.A.,University of León
Parasitology Research | Year: 2014

In the current study, Fasciola hepatica strains of sheep with different degrees of resistance to anthelmintics were analyzed by sequencing the cytochrome C oxidase (COX1) and the NADH dehydrogenase (NAD1) subunits. The strains were as follows: LS, susceptible to all drugs tested; CS, resistant to albendazole and triclabendazole; and SV, resistant to albendazole and clorsulon. The molecular characterization was done in eggs recovered from sheep infected by LS and CS. In relation to SV, eggs were recovered before (SV0) and after a treatment with albendazole (SVA) and clorsulon (SVC). Nested PCRs were carried out to amplify a fragment of 798 bp of the COX1 subunit and 870 bp of the NAD1 subunit. The pairwise sequence identity between eggs was analyzed for each strain. Population diversity indices, neutrality indices, and the degree of gene flow among the strains were evaluated. As a result, we have shown that there was homogeneity in the demographic expansion of the studied strains, and, according to the pairwise fixation index, these were not genetically differentiated. Although we found that the resistant strains had lower pairwise percentage similarities, higher haplotype diversity, and higher frequencies of specific SNPs, especially in the COX1 subunit, these differences were not very significant. Therefore, we conclude that the presence of adult flukes resistant to anthelmintics does not result in significant higher genetic diversity in the mtDNA of their eggs. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.

Martinez-Valladares M.,Institute Ganaderia Of Montana | Del Rosario Famularo M.,University of León | Fernandez-Pato N.,University of León | Castanon-Ordonez L.,University of León | And 2 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of triclabendazole (TCBZ) and nitroxynil against a TCBZ-resistant Fasciola hepatica strain in a naturally infected sheep flock. The efficacies were measured by the faecal egg count reduction test. The level of F. hepatica antigens was tested in faeces; and haematological indices such as total proteins (TP), albumin, hepatic enzymes and total IgG were also studied. The results confirmed the resistance of F. hepatica against TCBZ in the flock with an efficacy during the first month post-treatment between 59.4% and 73.8%. In the nitroxynil group, the efficacy during the same period ranged between 81.3% and 86%, likely because the efficacy of this drug against 7- to 9-week-old immature stages is only 50-90%. Anemia was showed in all groups and white blood cells were always higher than the reference range. The values of TP and albumin were within normal range in most of the sheep, and an increase in hepatic enzymes confirmed the liver damage. Regarding total IgG, some negative correlations were found with egg excretion, and in relation to the level of antigens in faeces, these ones decreased immediately after treatment. We conclude that nitroxynil could be an alternative in case of TCBZ resistance. © Springer-Verlag 2010.

Martinez-Valladares M.,Institute Ganaderia Of Montana | Robles-Perez D.,University of León | Martinez-Perez J.M.,University of León | Cordero-Perez C.,University of León | And 6 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2013

Background: In the present study we studied and updated the prevalence of the infections caused by gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) and Fasciola hepatica in grazing sheep in the northwest (NW) of Spain for the last six years (2006-2011), and its relationship with the current climatic conditions. Methods. We analyzed faecal samples from 110 flocks located in four different provinces of the Autonomous Community of Castilla y León: 76.4% of them were situated in León, 12.7% in Zamora, 9.1% in Palencia and 1.8% in Valladolid. Results: The prevalence of GIN was 100% and the mean of eggs per gram (epg) in faeces was 237.2 (± 375.9) per flock. Regarding climatic conditions, we found a direct relationship between the GIN infection level and the maximum humidity (p<0.05) but inverse with the degree of solar radiation (p<0.05). The prevalence of fasciolosis was 59.3%, with a mean epg of 17.5 (± 33.9) per flock; these values were correlated with the minimum humidity and precipitations (p<0.05). Comparing our results in León with previous studies during the early 1990s, the mean epg of GIN was increased slightly (134.3 epg); regarding fasciolosis, the prevalence rose significantly, from 26.7% to 60.5%. Since the 1990s we observed that the maximum temperature is nowadays 0.45°C higher (17.0°C) and the minimum 0.5°C lower (5.2°C); the rainfall values were very similar in both decades but at the present time the humidity is higher (75.9%). Conclusions: We found that the prevalence of GIN and F. hepatica infections was directly influenced by the humidity and also by precipitations in the case of F. hepatica. Comparing the current prevalence with studies carried out in the same area for the early 1990s, we observed that nowadays the mean epg of GIN is higher with a possible cause being the differences in climatic conditions depending on the sampling year. Regarding F. hepatica infection, its prevalence rose significantly probably favoured by an increase in irrigated areas in the area of study. © 2013 Martínez-Valladares et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Aldai N.,Institute Ganaderia Of Montana | Dugan M.E.R.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Rolland D.C.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Aalhus J.L.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
Meat Science | Year: 2012

Due to significant variation in polyunsaturated fatty acid biohydrogenation products in beef it would be useful to determine if levels of trans-18:1 isomers in samples collected ante-mortem are correlated with those collected post-mortem. Beef blood (RBC), subcutaneous fat (SC) and muscle (intramuscular fat; IM) samples were collected from an experiment with dietary vitamin E with/without flaxseed (n = 80) and fatty acids analyzed. Across treatments, correlation analysis of total and individual trans-18:1 isomers were performed between tissues. Correlations between SC and IM were highly significant for all individual and total trans-18:1. RBC trans-18:1 were also well correlated with other tissues except for vaccenic acid. Levels of 10. t-, 12. t- and 13. t/14. t- were amongst the best correlated between RBC and SC and IM profiles. Levels of 6. t/7. t/8. t-, 9. t-, and 15. t-18:1 showed significant but lower correlation factors particularly between RBC and SC. These results confirm the possibility of utilizing blood as a non-destructive sample to predict the total and isomeric profile of trans-18:1 in beef. © 2012.

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