Lausanne, Switzerland
Lausanne, Switzerland

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Sakwinska O.,University of Lausanne | Sakwinska O.,Nestlé | Morisset D.,University of Lausanne | Madec J.-Y.,Agence Nationale de Securite Sanitaire Anses | And 3 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2011

Staphylococcus aureus is a major bovine mastitis pathogen. Although the reported antimicrobial resistance was generally low, the emergence of new genetic clusters in bovine mastitis requires examination of the link between antimicrobial resistance and genotypes. Here, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) profiles and standard antimicrobial resistance profiles were determined in order to characterize a total of 343 S. aureus cow mastitis isolates from two geographically close regions of Switzerland and France. AFLP profiles revealed similar population compositions in the two regions, with 4 major clusters (C8, C20, C97, and C151), but the proportions of isolates in each cluster significantly diverged between the two countries (P = 9.2 10-9). Antimicrobial resistance was overall low (<5% resistance to all therapeutically relevant molecules), with the exception of penicillin resistance, which was detected in 26% of the isolates. Penicillin resistance proportions differed between clusters, with only 1 to 2% of resistance associated with C20 and C151 and up to 70% associated with bovine C97. The prevalence of C20 and C8 was unexpectedly high and requires further investigation into the mechanism of adaptation to the bovine host. The strong association of penicillin resistance with few clusters highlights the fact that the knowledge of local epidemiology is essential for rational choices of antimicrobial treatment in the absence of susceptibility testing. Taken together, these observations argue in favor of more routine scrutiny of antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic-resistant clones in cattle and the farm environment. © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Marreros N.,University of Bern | Hussy D.H.,University of Bern | Albini S.,University of Bern | Frey C.F.,University of Bern | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2011

In the early 2000s, several colonies of Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex) in Switzerland ceased growing or began to decrease. Reproductive problems due to infections with abortive agents might have negatively affected recruitment. We assessed the presence of selected agents of abortion in Alpine ibex by serologic, molecular, and culture techniques and evaluated whether infection with these agents might have affected population densities. Blood and fecal samples were collected from 651 ibex in 14 colonies throughout the Swiss Alps between 2006 and 2008. All samples were negative for Salmonella spp., Neospora caninum, and Bovine Herpesvirus-1. Antibodies to Coxiella burnetii, Leptospira spp., Chlamydophila abortus, Toxoplasma gondii, and Bovine Viral Diarrhea virus were detected in at least one ibex. Positive serologic results for Brucella spp. likely were false. Overall, 73 samples (11.2%) were antibody-positive for at least one abortive agent. Prevalence was highest for Leptospira spp. (7.9%, 95% CI=5.0-11.7). The low prevalences and the absence of significant differences between colonies with opposite population trends suggest these pathogens do not play a significant role in the population dynamics of Swiss ibex. Alpine ibex do not seem to be a reservoir for these abortive agents or an important source of infection for domestic livestock in Switzerland. Finally, although interactions on summer pastures occur frequently, spillover from infected livestock to free-ranging ibex apparently is uncommon. © Wildlife Disease Association 2011.


Linhares M.B.,University of Bern | Belloy L.,Institute Galli Valerio | Origgi F.C.,University of Bern | Lechner I.,University of Bern | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Enzootic pneumonia (EP) caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has a significant economic impact on domestic pig production. A control program carried out from 1999 to 2003 successfully reduced disease occurrence in domestic pigs in Switzerland, but recurrent outbreaks suggested a potential role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a source of reinfection. Since little is known on the epidemiology of EP in wild boar populations, our aims were: (1) to estimate the prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infections in wild boar in Switzerland; (2) to identify risk factors for infection in wild boar; and (3) to assess whether infection in wild boar is associated with the same gross and microscopic lesions typical of EP in domestic pigs. Nasal swabs, bronchial swabs and lung samples were collected from 978 wild boar from five study areas in Switzerland between October 2011 and May 2013. Swabs were analyzed by qualitative real time PCR and a histopathological study was conducted on lung tissues. Risk factor analysis was performed using multivariable logistic regression modeling. Overall prevalence in nasal swabs was 26.2% (95% CI 23.3-29.3%) but significant geographical differences were observed. Wild boar density, occurrence of EP outbreaks in domestic pigs and young age were identified as risk factors for infection. There was a significant association between infection and lesions consistent with EP in domestic pigs. We have concluded that M. hyopneumoniae is widespread in the Swiss wild boar population, that the same risk factors for infection of domestic pigs also act as risk factors for infection of wild boar, and that infected wild boar develop lesions similar to those found in domestic pigs. However, based on our data and the outbreak pattern in domestic pigs, we propose that spillover from domestic pigs to wild boar is more likely than transmission from wild boar to pigs. © 2015 Batista Linhares et al.


Chaignat V.,Institute Galli Valerio | Boujon P.,Institute Galli Valerio | Frey C.F.,University of Bern | Hentrich B.,University of Bern | And 2 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2015

A typical multivesiculated metacestode tissue has been found in the liver of a European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) originating from a northern area of Switzerland. In this study, the causative species was identified as Echinococcus multilocularis by appropriate histological and molecular analyses and corresponding DNA sequencing. This is the first confirmation of larval E. multilocularis from hares in central Europe. The metacestode tissue contained protoscolices, suggesting that the hare may contribute to the transmission of E. multilocularis in Switzerland. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Wirz-Dittus S.,Institute Galli Valerio | Wirz-Dittus S.,University of Bern | Belloy L.,Institute Galli Valerio | Hussy D.,University of Bern | And 2 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2010

Between 1976 and 2003, no infections with Salmonella Abortusovis had been officially recorded in Switzerland. Since then, however, several sheep flocks were infected and suffered massive fetal losses suggesting a re-emergence of the disease. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the epidemiological situation of S. Abortusovis infection in sheep in this country. A representative serum sample collected in 2007 in the context of certifying Brucella freedom included sera from 578 flocks with a total of 8426 sheep from all regions in Switzerland and the Principality of Liechtenstein. Sera were tested by ELISA for the presence of antibodies specific for S. Abortusovis. The cantonal seroprevalence was estimated at the sheep as well as the flock-level by taking into account (a) all flocks with one or more seropositive sheep (Flock 1+) and (b) only the flocks with two or more seropositive sheep (Flock 2+).Flocks with seropositive sheep were found throughout the country with an overall sheep-level prevalence of 1.7%. At the flock-level, overall prevalences of 16.3% and 5.0% were found for Flock 1+ and Flock 2+ definitions, respectively. Significant sheep-level clusters were located in the cantons of Bern, the Valais and Graubünden, while significant flock-level clusters (Flock 1+ and Flock 2+) were located in the canton of Graubünden only. Our results indicate that exposure of Swiss sheep flocks to S. Abortusovis is wide-spread. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Enzootic pneumonia (EP) caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has a significant economic impact on domestic pig production. A control program carried out from 1999 to 2003 successfully reduced disease occurrence in domestic pigs in Switzerland, but recurrent outbreaks suggested a potential role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a source of re-infection. Since little is known on the epidemiology of EP in wild boar populations, our aims were: (1) to estimate the prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infections in wild boar in Switzerland; (2) to identify risk factors for infection in wild boar; and (3) to assess whether infection in wild boar is associated with the same gross and microscopic lesions typical of EP in domestic pigs. Nasal swabs, bronchial swabs and lung samples were collected from 978 wild boar from five study areas in Switzerland between October 2011 and May 2013. Swabs were analyzed by qualitative real time PCR and a histopathological study was conducted on lung tissues. Risk factor analysis was performed using multivariable logistic regression modeling. Overall prevalence in nasal swabs was 26.2% (95% CI 23.3-29.3%) but significant geographical differences were observed. Wild boar density, occurrence of EP outbreaks in domestic pigs and young age were identified as risk factors for infection. There was a significant association between infection and lesions consistent with EP in domestic pigs. We have concluded that M. hyopneumoniae is widespread in the Swiss wild boar population, that the same risk factors for infection of domestic pigs also act as risk factors for infection of wild boar, and that infected wild boar develop lesions similar to those found in domestic pigs. However, based on our data and the outbreak pattern in domestic pigs, we propose that spillover from domestic pigs to wild boar is more likely than transmission from wild boar to pigs.


Sakwinska O.,University of Lausanne | Giddey M.,University of Lausanne | Moreillon M.,University of Lausanne | Morisset D.,University of Lausanne | And 2 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2011

Staphylococcus aureus is a major agent of bovine mastitis. The concomitant emergence of pig-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in human carriage and infection requires a reexamination of the host range and specificity of human- and cow-associated S. aureus strains, something which has not been systematically studied previously. The genetic relatedness of 500 S. aureus isolates from bovine mastitis cases, 57 isolates from nasal carriage of farmers, and 133 isolates from nonfarmers was determined by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis and spa typing. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was conducted on a subset of isolates to match AFLP clusters with MLST clonal complexes (CCs). This data set allowed us to study host range and host specificity and to estimate the extent of bovine-tohuman transmission. The genotype compositions of S. aureus isolates from farmers and nonfarmers were very similar, while the mastitis isolates were quite distinct. Overall, transmission was low, but specific genotypes did show increased cow-to-human transmission. Unexpectedly, more than one-third of mastitis isolates belonged to CC8, a lineage which has not been considered to be bovine mastitis associated, but it is well known from human carriage and infection (i.e., USA300). Despite the fact that we did detect some transmission of other genotypes from cows to farmers, no transmission of CC8 isolates to farmers was detected, except for one tentative case. This was despite the close genetic relatedness of mastitis CC8 strains to nonfarmer carriage strains. These results suggest that the emergence of the new bovine-adapted genotype was due to a recent host shift from humans to cows concurrent with a loss of the ability to colonize humans. More broadly, our results indicate that host specificity is a lineage-specific trait that can rapidly evolve. © 2011, American Society for Microbiology.


PubMed | Institute Galli Valerio
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation : official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc | Year: 2010

An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was modified and validated to detect antibodies against Salmonella Abortusovis in naturally infected sheep. The ELISA was validated with 44 positive and 45 negative control serum samples. Compared with the immunoblot, the sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 98% and 100%, respectively. To follow antibody levels over time, samples from 12 infected ewes were collected at 1, 3, and 10 months after abortion. All animals showed antibody levels above the cutoff value throughout the observation period. One and 3 months after abortion, high antibody levels could be detected in all but one animal, whereas after 10 months, 9 animals had markedly lower but still positive antibody levels. The test characteristics and evidence for the persistence of detectable antibody levels in all infected animals for up to 10 months indicates that the ELISA can be used for herd surveillance testing.


PubMed | Institute Galli Valerio
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Preventive veterinary medicine | Year: 2010

Between 1976 and 2003, no infections with Salmonella Abortusovis had been officially recorded in Switzerland. Since then, however, several sheep flocks were infected and suffered massive fetal losses suggesting a re-emergence of the disease. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the epidemiological situation of S. Abortusovis infection in sheep in this country. A representative serum sample collected in 2007 in the context of certifying Brucella freedom included sera from 578 flocks with a total of 8426 sheep from all regions in Switzerland and the Principality of Liechtenstein. Sera were tested by ELISA for the presence of antibodies specific for S. Abortusovis. The cantonal seroprevalence was estimated at the sheep as well as the flock-level by taking into account (a) all flocks with one or more seropositive sheep (Flock 1+) and (b) only the flocks with two or more seropositive sheep (Flock 2+). Flocks with seropositive sheep were found throughout the country with an overall sheep-level prevalence of 1.7%. At the flock-level, overall prevalences of 16.3% and 5.0% were found for Flock 1+ and Flock 2+ definitions, respectively. Significant sheep-level clusters were located in the cantons of Bern, the Valais and Graubnden, while significant flock-level clusters (Flock 1+ and Flock 2+) were located in the canton of Graubnden only. Our results indicate that exposure of Swiss sheep flocks to S. Abortusovis is wide-spread.


PubMed | Institute Galli Valerio
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Parasitology research | Year: 2015

A typical multivesiculated metacestode tissue has been found in the liver of a European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) originating from a northern area of Switzerland. In this study, the causative species was identified as Echinococcus multilocularis by appropriate histological and molecular analyses and corresponding DNA sequencing. This is the first confirmation of larval E. multilocularis from hares in central Europe. The metacestode tissue contained protoscolices, suggesting that the hare may contribute to the transmission of E. multilocularis in Switzerland.

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