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Genova, Italy

Viprey V.F.,Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine | Corrias M.V.,Gaslini Institute | Burchill S.A.,Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine
Analytical Biochemistry

In many cancers, including neuroblastoma, microRNA (miRNA) expression profiling of peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) may increase understanding of the metastatic process and lead to the identification of clinically informative biomarkers. The quality of miRNAs in PB and BM samples archived in PAXgene™ blood RNA tubes from large-scale clinical studies and the identity of reference miRNAs for standard reporting of data are to date unknown. In this study, we evaluated the reliability of expression profiling of 377 miRNAs using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in PB and BM samples (n = 90) stored at -80°C for up to 5 years in PAXgene™ blood RNA tubes. There was no correlation with storage time and variation of expression for any single miRNA (r < 0.50). The profile of miRNAs isolated as small RNAs or co-isolated with small/large RNAs was highly correlated (r = 0.96). The mean expression of all miRNAs and the geNorm program identified miR-26a, miR-28-5p, and miR-24 as the most stable reference miRNAs. This study describes detailed methodologies for reliable miRNA isolation and profiling of PB and BM, including reference miRNAs for qPCR normalization, and demonstrates the suitability of clinical samples archived at -80°C into PAXgene™ blood RNA tubes for miRNA expression studies. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Giuffrida G.,University of Catania | Cappellini M.D.,Foundation Medicine | Carubbi F.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Di Rocco M.,Gaslini Institute | Iolascon G.,The Second University of Naples
Advances in Therapy

Gaucher disease is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of glycosphingolipid metabolism resulting from deficient activity of the lysosomal enzyme beta-glucocerebrosidase that causes accumulation of glucosylceramide in tissue macrophage with damage to hematological, visceral, and skeletal organ systems. Severity and progression may vary independently among these domains, necessitating individualized therapy. Skeletal involvement is highly prevalent and often associated with intense pain, impaired mobility, and reduced quality of life. Enzyme replacement therapy improves parameters in all affected domains, but skeletal involvement requires longer treatment and higher dosages to obtain significant results. Despite numerous papers on bone complications in patients with Gaucher disease, there are no specific indications on how to assess properly bone involvement in such condition, the frequency of assessment, the use of markers for osteoblast and osteoclast activity, or the administration of bisphosphonates or other symptomatic drugs in adult and pediatric patients. Starting from a re-evaluation of cases with bone involvement, we have identified some common errors in the diagnostic approach and management. The aim of this paper was to propose a methodological and critical approach to the diagnosis, follow-up and treatment of bone disease in patients with Gaucher disease type 1. © 2014, Springer Healthcare. Source

Cullinane A.R.,University of Birmingham | Straatman-Iwanowska A.,University of Birmingham | Zaucker A.,University of Birmingham | Wakabayashi Y.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 23 more authors.
Nature Genetics

Arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction and cholestasis syndrome (ARC) is a multisystem disorder associated with abnormalities in polarized liver and kidney cells. Mutations in VPS33B account for most cases of ARC. We identified mutations in VIPAR (also called C14ORF133) in individuals with ARC without VPS33B defects. We show that VIPAR forms a functional complex with VPS33B that interacts with RAB11A. Knockdown of vipar in zebrafish resulted in biliary excretion and E-cadherin defects similar to those in individuals with ARC. Vipar-and Vps33b-deficient mouse inner medullary collecting duct (mIMDC-3) cells expressed membrane proteins abnormally and had structural and functional tight junction defects. Abnormal Ceacam5 expression was due to mis-sorting toward lysosomal degradation, but reduced E-cadherin levels were associated with transcriptional downregulation. The VPS33B-VIPAR complex thus has diverse functions in the pathways regulating apical-basolateral polarity in the liver and kidney. © 2010 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Le Goff C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Mahaut C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Abhyankar A.,Rockefeller University | Le Goff W.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 13 more authors.
Nature Genetics

Myhre syndrome (MIM 139210) is a developmental disorder characterized by short stature, short hands and feet, facial dysmorphism, muscular hypertrophy, deafness and cognitive delay. Using exome sequencing of individuals with Myhre syndrome, we identified SMAD4 as a candidate gene that contributes to this syndrome on the basis of its pivotal role in the bone morphogenetic pathway (BMP) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling. We identified three distinct heterozygous missense SMAD4 mutations affecting the codon for Ile500 in 11 individuals with Myhre syndrome. All three mutations are located in the region of SMAD4 encoding the Mad homology 2 (MH2) domain near the site of monoubiquitination at Lys519, and we found a defect in SMAD4 ubiquitination in fibroblasts from affected individuals. We also observed decreased expression of downstream TGF-β target genes, supporting the idea of impaired TGF-β-mediated transcriptional control in individuals with Myhre syndrome. Source

Bellini C.,Gaslini Institute
Advances in Anatomy Embryology and Cell Biology

Primary lymphedema is defined as lymphedema caused by dysplasia of the lymph vessels. This complex group of diseases is discussed in detail from a clinical perspective. A review of the epidemiology and classification of lymphedema on the backdrop of its clinical presentation reveals weaknesses of the present classification system, which, however, is the basis for the choice of optimal patient care. Non-syndrome and syndrome types of primary lymphedema are presented in detail and related molecular findings are summarized. © Springer-Verlag Wien 2014. Source

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