Institute fuer Umweltmedizinische Forschung IUF

Düsseldorf, Germany

Institute fuer Umweltmedizinische Forschung IUF

Düsseldorf, Germany
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Grether-Beck S.,Institute fuer Umweltmedizinische Forschung IUF | Felsner I.,Institute fuer Umweltmedizinische Forschung IUF | Brenden H.,Institute fuer Umweltmedizinische Forschung IUF | Kohne Z.,Institute fuer Umweltmedizinische Forschung IUF | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology | Year: 2012

Urea is an endogenous metabolite, known to enhance stratum corneum hydration. Yet, topical urea anecdotally also improves permeability barrier function, and it appears to exhibit antimicrobial activity. Hence, we hypothesized that urea is not merely a passive metabolite, but a small-molecule regulator of epidermal structure and function. In 21 human volunteers, topical urea improved barrier function in parallel with enhanced antimicrobial peptide (AMP; LL-37 and Β-defensin-2) expression. Urea stimulates the expression of, and is transported into, keratinocytes by two urea transporters (UTs), UT-A1 and UT-A2, and by aquaporins 3, 7, and 9. Inhibitors of these UTs block the downstream biological effects of urea, which include increased mRNA and protein levels of (i) transglutaminase-1, involucrin, loricrin, and filaggrin, (ii) epidermal lipid synthetic enzymes, and (iii) cathelicidin/LL-37 and Β-defensin-2. Finally, we explored the potential clinical utility of urea, showing that topical urea applications normalized both barrier function and AMP expression in a murine model of atopic dermatitis. Together, these results show that urea is a small-molecule regulator of epidermal permeability barrier function and AMP expression after transporter uptake, followed by gene regulatory activity in normal epidermis, with potential therapeutic applications in diseased skin. © 2012 The Society for Investigative Dermatology.


Calles C.,Institute fuer Umweltmedizinische Forschung IUF | Schneider M.,Institute fuer Umweltmedizinische Forschung IUF | MacAluso F.,Institute fuer Umweltmedizinische Forschung IUF | Benesova T.,Institute fuer Umweltmedizinische Forschung IUF | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology | Year: 2010

Infrared A (IRA) radiation (760-1440 nm) is a major component of solar radiation and, similar to UVR, causes photoaging of human skin by increasing the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in human skin fibroblasts. In this study, we assessed the IRA-induced transcriptome in primary human skin fibroblasts. Microarray analysis revealed 599 IRA-regulated transcripts. The IRA-induced transcriptome differed from changes known to be induced by UV. IRA-responsive genes include the categories extracellular matrix, calcium homeostasis, stress signaling, and apoptosis. Selected results were confirmed by real-time PCR experiments analyzing 13 genes representing these four categories. By means of chemical inhibitors of known signaling pathways, we showed that ERK1/2, the p38-, JNK-, PI3K/AKT-, STAT3-, and IL-6 as well as the calcium-mediated signaling pathways, are functionally involved in the IRA gene response and that a major part of it is triggered by mitochondrial and, to a lesser extent, non-mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species. Our results identify IRA as an environmental factor with relevance for skin homeostasis and photoaging. © 2010 The Society for Investigative Dermatology.


PubMed | Institute fuer Umweltmedizinische Forschung IUF
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of investigative dermatology | Year: 2010

Infrared A (IRA) radiation (760-1440 nm) is a major component of solar radiation and, similar to UVR, causes photoaging of human skin by increasing the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in human skin fibroblasts. In this study, we assessed the IRA-induced transcriptome in primary human skin fibroblasts. Microarray analysis revealed 599 IRA-regulated transcripts. The IRA-induced transcriptome differed from changes known to be induced by UV. IRA-responsive genes include the categories extracellular matrix, calcium homeostasis, stress signaling, and apoptosis. Selected results were confirmed by real-time PCR experiments analyzing 13 genes representing these four categories. By means of chemical inhibitors of known signaling pathways, we showed that ERK1/2, the p38-, JNK-, PI3K/AKT-, STAT3-, and IL-6 as well as the calcium-mediated signaling pathways, are functionally involved in the IRA gene response and that a major part of it is triggered by mitochondrial and, to a lesser extent, non-mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species. Our results identify IRA as an environmental factor with relevance for skin homeostasis and photoaging.

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