Institute fuer Biochemie

Hannover, Germany

Institute fuer Biochemie

Hannover, Germany
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Saran S.,Institute fuer Biochemie | Tran D.D.H.,Institute fuer Biochemie | Klebba-Farber S.,Institute fuer Biochemie | Moran-Losada P.,Padiatrische Pneumologie | And 7 more authors.
BMC Cell Biology | Year: 2013

Background: THO (Suppressors of the transcriptional defects of hpr1 delta by overexpression) complex 5 (THOC5), an mRNA export protein, is involved in the expression of only 1% of all genes. Using an interferon inducible knockout mouse system, we have previously shown that THOC5 is an essential element in the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells and cytokine-mediated hematopoiesis in adult mice. Here we interrogate THOC5 function in cell differentiation beyond the hematopoietic system and study pathological changes caused by THOC5 deficiency.Results: To examine whether THOC5 plays a role in general differentiation processes, we generated tamoxifen inducible THOC5 knockout mice. We show here that the depletion of THOC5 impaired not only hematopoietic differentiation, but also differentiation and self renewal of the gut epithelium. Depletion of the THOC5 gene did not cause pathological alterations in liver or kidney.We further show that THOC5 is indispensable for processing of mRNAs induced by Wnt (wingless/integrated) signaling which play key roles in epithelial cell differentiation/proliferation. A subset of Wnt target mRNAs, SRY-box containing gene 9 (Sox9), and achaete-scute complex homolog 2 (Ascl2), but not Fibronectin 1 (Fn1), were down-regulated in THOC5 knockout intestinal cells. The down-regulated Wnt target mRNAs were able to bind to THOC5. Furthermore, pathological alterations in the gastrointestinal tract induced translocation of intestinal bacteria and caused sepsis in mice. The bacteria translocation may cause Toll-like receptor activation. We identified one of the Toll-like receptor inducible genes, prostaglandin-endoperoxidase synthase 2 (Ptgs2 or COX2) transcript as THOC5 target mRNA.Conclusion: THOC5 is indispensable for processing of only a subset of mRNAs, but plays a key role in processing of mRNAs inducible by Wnt signals. Furthermore, THOC5 is dispensable for general mRNA export in terminally differentiated organs, indicating that multiple mRNA export pathways exist. These data imply that THOC5 may be a useful tool for studying intestinal stem cells, for modifying the differentiation processes and for cancer therapy. © 2013 Saran et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Dutta P.,Institute fuer Biochemie | Koch A.,Institute fuer Biochemie | Breyer B.,Institute fuer Biochemie | Schneider H.,Institute fuer Biochemie | And 3 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2011

Background: Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a potent growth factor that plays a key role in neuronal cell differentiation and may also play a role in hematopoietic differentiation. It has been shown that NGF induced synergistic action for the colony formation of CD34 positive hematopoietic progenitor cells treated with macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF or CSF-1), or stem cell factor (SCF). However, the exact role of NGF in hematopoietic system is unclear. It is also not clear whether NGF mediated signals in hematopoietic cells are identical to those in neuronal cells.Results: To study the signal transduction pathways induced by NGF treatment in hematopoietic cells, we utilized the mastocytoma cell line HMC-1(V560G c-Kit) which expresses the NGF receptor, tropomyosin-receptor-kinase (Trk)A, as well as the constitutively activated SCF receptor, V560G c-Kit, which can be inhibited completely by treatment with the potent tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate (imatinib). NGF rescues HMC-1(V560G c-Kit) cells from imatinib mediated cell death and promotes proliferation. To examine the NGF mediated proliferation and survival in these cells, we compared the NGF mediated upregulated genes (30 and 120 min after stimulation) to the downregulated genes by imatinib treatment (downregulation of c-Kit activity for 4 h) by transcriptome analysis. The following conclusions can be drawn from the microarray data: Firstly, gene expression profiling reveals 50% overlap of genes induced by NGF-TrkA with genes expressed downstream of V560G c-Kit. Secondly, NGF treatment does not enhance expression of genes involved in immune related functions that were down regulated by imatinib treatment. Thirdly, more than 55% of common upregulated genes are involved in cell proliferation and survival. Fourthly, we found Kruppel-like factor (KLF) 2 and Smad family member 7 (SMAD7) as the NGF mediated novel downstream genes in hematopoietic cells. Finally, the downregulation of KLF2 gene enhanced imatinib induced apoptosis.Conclusion: NGF does not induce genes which are involved in immune related functions, but induces proliferation and survival signals in HMC-1(V560G c-Kit) cells. Furthermore, the current data provide novel candidate genes, KLF2 and SMAD7 which are induced by NGF/TrkA activation in hematopoietic cells. Since the depletion of KLF2 causes enhanced apoptosis of HMC-1(V560G c-Kit), KLF2 may play a role in the NGF mediated survival signal. © 2011 Dutta et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Mancini A.,Institute fuer Biochemie | Mancini A.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Niemann-Seyde S.C.,Institute fuer Biochemie | Pankow R.,Forschungsinstitut fuer Molekulare Pharmakologie | And 8 more authors.
BMC Biology | Year: 2010

Background: The transcription/export complex is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to man and is required for coupled transcription elongation and nuclear export of mRNAs. FMIP(Fms interacting protein) is a member of the THO (suppressors of the transcriptional defects of hpr1delta by overexpression) complex which is a subcomplex of the transcription/export complex. THO complex (THOC) components are not essential for bulk poly (A)+ RNA export in higher eukaryotes, but for the nuclear export of subset of mRNAs, however, their exact role is still unclear.Results: To study the role of THOC5/Fms interacting protein in vivo, we generated THOC5/Fms interacting protein knockout mice. Since these mice are embryonic lethal, we then generated interferon inducible conditional THOC5/Fms interacting protein knockout mice. After three poly injections all of the mice died within 14 days. No pathological alterations, however, were observed in liver, kidney or heart. Thus we considered the hematopoietic system and found that seven days after poly injection, the number of blood cells in peripheral blood decreased drastically. Investigation of bone marrow cells showed that these became apoptotic within seven days after poly injection. Committed myeloid progenitor cells and cells with long term reconstituting potential were lost from bone marrow within four days after poly injection. Furthermore, infusion of normal bone marrow cells rescued mice from death induced by loss of THOC5/Fms interacting protein.Conclusion: THOC5/Fms interacting protein is an essential element in the maintenance of hematopoiesis. Furthermore, mechanistically depletion of THOC5/Fms interacting protein causes the down-regulation of its direct interacting partner, THOC1 which may contribute to altered THO complex function and cell death. © 2010 Mancini et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Tran D.D.H.,Institute fuer Biochemie | Saran S.,Institute fuer Biochemie | Williamson A.J.K.,University of Manchester | Pierce A.,University of Manchester | And 5 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2014

Transcription of immediate early genes (IEGs) in response to extrinsic and intrinsic signals is tightly regulated atmultiple stages. It is known that untranslated regions of the RNA can play a role in these processes. Here we show that THOC5, a member of the TREX (transcription/export) complex, plays a role in expression of only a subset of constitutively active genes, however transcriptome analysis reveals that more than 90% of IEG were not induced by serum in THOC5 depleted cells. Furthermore, THOC5 depletion does not influence the expression of the most rapidly induced IEGs, e.g. Fos and Jun. One group of THOC5 target genes, including Id1, Id3 and Wnt11 transcripts, were not released from chromatin in THOC5 depleted cells. Genes in another group, includingMyc andSmad7 transcripts,were released with shortening of 3' UTR by alternative cleavage, and were spliced but export was impaired in THOC5 depleted cells. By interactome analysis using THOC5 as bait, we show that upon stimulation with serum THOC5 forms a complex with polyadenylationspecific factor 100 (CPSF100). THOC5 is required for recruitment of CPSF100 to 3' UTR of THOC5 target genes. These data suggest the presence of a novel mechanism for the control of IEG response by THOC5 via 3' end-processing. © The Author(s) 2014.

Tran D.D.H.,Institute fuer Biochemie | Koch A.,Institute fuer Biochemie | Tamura T.,Institute fuer Biochemie
Cell Communication and Signaling | Year: 2014

Cell growth, differentiation, and commitment to a restricted lineage are guided by a timely expressed set of growth factor/cytokine receptors and their down-stream transcription factor genes. Transcriptional control mechanisms of gene expression during differentiation have been mainly studied by focusing on the cis- and trans-elements in promoters however, the role of mRNA export machinery during differentiation has not been adequately examined. THO (Suppressors of the transcriptional defects of hpr1 delta by overexpression) complex 5 (THOC5) is a member of THO complex which is a subcomplex of the transcription/export complex (TREX). THOC5 is evolutionarily conserved in higher eukaryotes, however the exact roles of THOC5 in transcription and mRNA export are still unclear. In this review, we focus on recently uncovered aspects of the role of THOC5 in signal transduction induced by extracellular stimuli. THOC5 is phosphorylated by several protein kinases at multiple residues upon extracellular stimuli. These include stimulation with growth factors/cytokines/chemokines, or DNA damage reagents. Furthermore, THOC5 is a substrate for several oncogenic tyrosine kinases, suggesting that THOC5 may be involved in cancer development. Recent THOC5 knockout mouse data reveal that THOC5 is an essential element in the maintenance of stem cells and growth factor/cytokine-mediated differentiation/proliferation. Furthermore, depletion of THOC5 influences less than 1% of total mRNA export in the steady state, however it influences more than 90% of growth factor/cytokine induced genes. THOC5, thereby contributes to the 3′ processing and/or export of immediate-early genes induced by extracellular stimuli. These studies bring new insight into the link between the mRNA export complex and immediate-early gene response. The data from these studies also suggest that THOC5 may be a useful tool for studying stem cell biology, for modifying the differentiation processes and for cancer therapy. © 2014 Tran et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Griaud F.,University of Manchester | Pierce A.,University of Manchester | Gonzalez Sanchez M.B.,University of Manchester | Scott M.,University of Glasgow | And 5 more authors.
Leukemia | Year: 2013

THOC5 is a member of the THO complex that is involved in processing and transport of mRNA. We have shown previously that hematopoietic stem cells have an absolute requirement for THOC5 for survival and that THOC5 is phosphorylated on tyrosine 225 as a consequence of leukemogenic protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) action. We have investigated pathways for THOC5 phosphorylation to develop an understanding of THO complex modulation by tyrosine kinase (TK) oncogenes in leukemias. We demonstrate that THOC5 phosphorylation is mediated by Src PTK and CD45 protein tyrosine phosphatase action and that this event is sensitive to oxidative status. We show that THOC5 phosphorylation is elevated in stem cells from patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and that this phosphorylation is sensitive to the frontline drugs used in CML treatment. Further we show that THOC5 Y225 phosphorylation governs mRNA binding. In addition, CXCL12 is shown to induce THOC5 Y225 phosphorylation, and site-directed mutagenesis demonstrates that this modulates motile response. In conclusion, we delineate a signaling pathway stimulated by leukemogenic PTKs, chemokines and oxidative stress that can affect THO complex mediation of gene expression describing mechanisms for post-transcriptional regulation of protein levels. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Tran D.D.H.,Institute fuer Biochemie | Saran S.,Institute fuer Biochemie | Dittrich-Breiholz O.,Institute fuer Biochemie | Williamson A.J.K.,University of Manchester | And 5 more authors.
Cell Death and Disease | Year: 2013

Hematopoiesis and commitment to a restricted lineage are guided by a timely expressed set of cytokine receptors and their downstream transcription factors. A member of the mRNA export complex, THOC5 (suppressors of the transcriptional defects of hpr1 delta by overexpression complex 5) is a substrate for several tyrosine kinases such as macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) receptor and various leukemogenic tyrosine kinases, such as Bcr-Abl, or NPM-ALK. THOC5 tyrosine phosphorylation is elevated in stem cells from patients with chronic myeloid leukemia, suggesting that THOC5 may be involved in leukemia development. THOC5 is also an essential element in the maintenance of hematopoiesis in adult mice. In this report, we show that THOC5 is located in the nuclear speckles, and that it is translocated from the nucleus to cytoplasm during M-CSFinduced bone marrow-derived macrophage differentiation. Furthermore, we have identified THOC5 target genes by trancriptome analysis, using tamoxifen-inducible THOC5 knockout macrophages. Although only 99 genes were downregulated in THOC5- depleted macrophages, half of the genes are involved in differentiation and/or migration. These include well-known regulators of myeloid differentiation inhibitor of DNA binding (Id)1, Id3, Smad family member 6 (Smad6) and Homeobox (Hox)A1. In addition, a subset of M-CSF-inducible genes, such as Ets family mRNAs are THOC5 target mRNAs. Upon depletion of THOC5, unspliced v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (Ets1) mRNA was accumulated in the nucleus. Furthermore, THOC5 was recruited to chromatin where Ets1 was transcribed and bound to unspliced and spliced Ets1 transcripts, indicating that THOC5 has a role in processing/export of M-CSF-inducible genes. In conclusion, regulation of immediate-early gene response by THOC5, a member of mRNA export complex contributes to the M-CSF-induced macrophage differentiation. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

PubMed | University of Hamburg, Institute fuer Biochemie and Klinik fur Orthopadie
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Oncogene | Year: 2016

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a frequent form of cancer with a poor prognosis and with limited possibilities of medical intervention. It has been shown that over 100 putative driver genes are associated with multiple recurrently altered pathways in HCC, suggesting that multiple pathways will need to be inhibited for any therapeutic method. mRNA processing is regulated by a complex RNA-protein network that is essential for the maintenance of homeostasis. THOC5, a member of mRNA export complex, has a role in less than 1% of mRNA processing, and is required for cell growth and differentiation, but not for cell survival in normal fibroblasts, hepatocytes and macrophages. In this report, we show that 50% depletion of THOC5 in human HCC cell lines Huh7 and HepG2 induced apoptosis. Transcriptome analysis using THOC5-depleted cells revealed that 396 genes, such as transmembrane BAX inhibitor motif containing 4 (TMBIM4), transmembrane emp24-like trafficking protein 10 (Tmed10) and D-tyrosyl-tRNA deacylase 2 (Dtd2) genes were downregulated in both cell lines. The depletion of one of these THOC5 target genes in Huh7 or HepG2 did not significantly induce cell death, suggesting that these may be fine tuners for HCC cell survival. However, the depletion of a combination of these genes synergistically increased the number of TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling)-positive HCC. It must be noted that the depletion of these genes did not induce cell death in the hepatocyte cell line, THLE-2 cells. THOC5 expression was enhanced in 78% of cytological differentiation grading G2 and G3 tumor in primary HCC. Furthermore, the expression of a putative glycoprotein, Tmed10, is correlated to THOC5 expression level in primary HCCs, suggesting that this protein may be a novel biomarker for HCC. These data imply that the suppression of the multiple THOC5 target genes may represent a novel strategy for HCC therapy.

PubMed | Institute fuer Biochemie
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cancer letters | Year: 2016

Recent evidence indicates that mRNA export is selective, giving priority to a subset of mRNAs that control diverse biological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, stress response, and cell survival as well as tumor development. The depletion of a member of the mRNA export complex, the THO complex, impairs the expression of only a subset of genes, but causes dramatic changes in phenotype, such as cell cycle inhibition, abnormal differentiation, and importantly apoptosis of stem cells and cancer cells but not normal epithelial cells, hepatocytes, or fibroblasts. Recent exosome sequence data revealed that over 100 driver gene mutations with a number of signaling pathways are involved in human cancer formation, indicating that multiple signaling pathways will need to be inhibited for cancer therapy. In this review we firstly describe a basic feature and function of the mRNA export complex, THO, secondly, the biological alteration upon depletion of a member of the THO complex in normal and cancer cells, and thirdly, identification of its target genes. Finally we describe our recent data on selection of targeting candidates from THOC5 dependent genes for application in cancer therapy.

PubMed | Helmholtz Center for Infection Research, University of Hamburg, Institute fuer Biochemie and Fraunhofer Institute For Toxikologie Und Experimentelle Medizin Atemwegspharmakologie
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cellular signalling | Year: 2016

Differentiated hepatocytes are long-lived and normally do not undergo cell division, however they have the unique capacity to autonomously decide their replication fate after liver injury. In this context, the key players of liver regeneration immediately after injury have not been adequately studied. Using an in vitro liver culture system, we show that after liver injury, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (Erk)1/2 were activated within 15 min and continued to be phosphorylated for more than 2h. Both p38MAPK and Erk1/2 were activated at the edge of the cut as well as on the liver surface where the mesothelial cell sheet expresses several cytokines. Notably, in human liver Erk1/2 was also activated under the mesothelial cell sheet shortly after liver resections. Furthermore, in in vitro liver slice culture immediate early genes (IEGs) were upregulated within 1-2 h and the S phase marker proliferation-cell-nuclear-antigen (PCNA) appeared 24 h after injury. Although Erk1/2 was activated after injury, in MK2 depleted liver a set of IEGs, such as Dusp1, Cox2, or c-Myc and proliferation marker gene Ki67 were not induced. In addition, in immortalized hepatocyte cells, THLE-2, the same subset of genes was upregulated upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), but not in the presence of MK2 inhibitor. The protein level of tristetraprolin (TTP), a substrate for MK2 that plays a role in mRNA degradation, was increased in the presence of MK2 inhibitor. In this context, the depletion of TTP gene rescued Dusp1, Cox2, or c-Myc upregulation in the presence of MK2 inhibitor. These data imply that MK2 pathway is positively involved in Erk1/2 induced IEG response after liver injury. These data also suggest that in vitro liver culture may be a useful tool for measuring the proliferation potential of hepatocytes in individual liver.

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