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Offenbach-Hundheim, Germany

Guenther E.,Inter Science | Guenther E.,Institute fuer Bildgebende Diagnostik | Klein N.,Inter Science | Klein N.,Institute fuer Bildgebende Diagnostik | And 5 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2015

Electroporation, the permeabilization of the cell membrane by brief, high electric fields, has become an important technology in medicine for diverse application ranging from gene transfection to tissue ablation. There is ample anecdotal evidence that the clinical application of electroporation is often associated with loud sounds and extremely high currents that exceed the devices design limit after which the devices cease to function. The goal of this paper is to elucidate and quantify the biophysical and biochemical basis for this phenomenon. Using an experimental design that includes clinical data, a tissue phantom, sound, optical, ultrasound and MRI measurements, we show that the phenomenon is caused by electrical breakdown across ionized electrolysis produced gases near the electrodes. The breakdown occurs primarily near the cathode. Electrical breakdown during electroporation is a biophysical phenomenon of substantial importance to the outcome of clinical applications. It was ignored, until now. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Lugnani F.,Franco Lugnani MD | Zanconati F.,University of Trieste | Marcuzzo T.,University of Trieste | Bottin C.,University of Trieste | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Freezing-cryosurgery, and electrolysis-electrochemical therapy (EChT), are two important minimally invasive surgery tissue ablation technologies. Despite major advantages they also have some disadvantages. Cryosurgery cannot induce cell death at high subzero freezing temperatures and requires multiple freeze thaw cycles, while EChT requires high concentrations of electrolytic products-which makes it a lengthy procedure. Based on the observation that freezing increases the concentration of solutes (including products of electrolysis) in the frozen region and permeabilizes the cell membrane to these products, this study examines the hypothesis that there could be a synergistic effect between freezing and electrolysis in their use together for tissue ablation. Using an animal model we refer to as vivens ex vivo, which may be of value in reducing the use of animals for experiments, combined with a Hematoxylin stain of the nucleus, we show that there are clinically relevant protocols in which the cell nucleus appears intact when electrolysis and freezing are used separately but is affected by certain combinations of electrolysis and freezing. © 2015 Lugnani et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source


Stehling M.K.,Inter Science GmbH Biophysics | Guenther E.,Inter Science GmbH Biophysics | Mikus P.,Inter Science GmbH Biophysics | Klein N.,Institute fuer Bildgebende Diagnostik | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Electrolysis, electrochemotherapy with reversible electroporation, nanosecond pulsed electric fields and irreversible electroporation are valuable non-Thermal electricity based tissue ablation technologies. This paper reports results from the first large animal study of a new non-Thermal tissue ablation technology that employs "Synergistic electrolysis and electroporation" (SEE). The goal of this pre-clinical study is to expand on earlier studies with small animals and use the pig liver to establish SEE treatment parameters of clinical utility. We examined two SEE methods. One of the methods employs multiple electrochemotherapytype reversible electroporation magnitude pulses, designed in such a way that the charge delivered during the electroporation pulses generates the electrolytic products. The second SEE method combines the delivery of a small number of electrochemotherapy magnitude electroporation pulses with a low voltage electrolysis generating DC current in three different ways. We show that both methods can produce lesion with dimensions of clinical utility, without the need to inject drugs as in electrochemotherapy, faster than with conventional electrolysis and with lower electric fields than irreversible electroporation and nanosecond pulsed ablation. © 2016 Stehling et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

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