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Geffroy O.,Institute Francais Of La Vigne Et Du Vin Pole Sud Ouest | Buissiere C.,Federation Viticole du Puy de Dome | Lempereur V.,Institute Francais Of La Vigne Et Du Vin Pole Bourgogne Beaujolais Jura Savoie | Chatelet B.,Institute Francais Of La Vigne Et Du Vin Pole Bourgogne Beaujolais Jura Savoie
Journal International des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin | Year: 2016

Aim: Within the protected designation of origin (PDO) Côtes d'Auvergne, Gamay N wines express unique peppery notes that may reflect high levels of rotundone. We investigated the typicality of these wines by determining their sensory, chemical and consumer profiles. Methods and results: Twenty-one Gamay N wines from the 2013 vintage from four French wine-growing areas were assessed by a trained sensory panel (n = 8). Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering of olfactory data were used to describe differences among regions and to select four wines for a consumer study (n = 87). Gamay N wines from Auvergne had more intense peppery notes and higher rotundone concentrations, two characteristics that showed a significant positive correlation. The large variability in rotundone among the 12 wines from Auvergne was attributed to ethanol content, which was correlated to the rotundone levels in the wines. Those who appreciate wines with a peppery sensory profile were generally managers and professionals who are willing to pay more for a bottle of wine. Conclusion: There were differences in sensory profile and rotundone concentrations in Gamay N wines from coolclimate vineyards. We also identified the consumption profile of those who appreciate peppery wines. Significance and impact of the study: Our results provide a scientific foundation for Auvergne grape growers to promote the typicality of their wines. This research also identifies the key elements for developing the Côtes d'Auvergne wine range and adapting products to consumer profiles. ©Vigne et Vin Publications Internationales. Source


Geffroy O.,Institute Francais Of La Vigne Et Du Vin Pole Sud Ouest | Lopez R.,Aragon Institute of Engineering Research | Serrano E.,Institute Francais Of La Vigne Et Du Vin Pole Sud Ouest | Dufourcq T.,Institute Francais Of La Vigne Et Du Vin Pole Sud Ouest | And 3 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

Experiments were carried out on Grenache, Carignan and Fer grapes in order to characterize the changes in nitrogen content of the musts, conventional enological parameters and aroma compounds of the wines induced by pre-fermentation heating of the grapes followed by alcoholic fermentation in liquid phase or in solid phase. In comparison to a standard vinification, we showed that a two-hour heat treatment at 70°C induced a significant loss in several grape-derived aroma compounds (terpenols, norisoprenoids and some phenols) associated with an increase in α-terpineol, guaiacol and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, which suggests thermal degradation. A significant increase in most of the ethyl esters, in acetates and in fatty acids were observed in wines fermented in liquid phase, together with a decrease in fusel alcohols. The substantial modification in the amino acid composition of the must seems to be a crucial element for the understanding of these changes. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Geffroy O.,Institute Francais Of La Vigne Et Du Vin Pole Sud Ouest | Siebert T.,The Australian Wine Research Institute | Herderich M.,The Australian Wine Research Institute | Mille B.,Institute Francais Of La Vigne Et Du Vin Pole Sud Ouest | Serrano E.,Institute Francais Of La Vigne Et Du Vin Pole Sud Ouest
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2016

Rotundone, the compound responsible for peppery aroma in red wines is positively correlated with the absence of water deficit during ripening which can make it problematic to produce red wines combining both superior concentrations in rotundone and phenolic compounds. To reach this double objective, on-vine drying with cutting of the fruit bearing cane or "Passerillage Éclaircissage sur Souche" (PES), a technique that consists in cutting the cane 2-3 weeks prior to harvest on a Guyot-trained vineyard was investigated combined or not with irrigation. We showed that PES had a limited impact on rotundone in wine. As the PES technique leads to an interruption of the sap flow, our results suggest that rotundone is synthesized in the berries and not translocated. A viticultural system combining irrigation and then PES induced significant gains in rotundone, in sugar concentration, in anthocyanins and in Total Phenolic Index in wine, and in skin to juice ratio. Measurements of bunch surface temperature indicate that the enhancement of rotundone production induced by irrigation is likely to be due to a direct rather than to an indirect effect through an increase in leaf area leading to a cooler bunch microclimate. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source


Geffroy O.,Institute Francais Of La Vigne Et Du Vin Pole Sud Ouest | Yobregat O.,Institute Francais Of La Vigne Et Du Vin Pole Sud Ouest | Dufourcq T.,Institute Francais Of La Vigne Et Du Vin Pole Sud Ouest | Siebert T.,Australian Wine Research Institute | Serrano E.,Institute Francais Of La Vigne Et Du Vin Pole Sud Ouest
Journal International des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin | Year: 2015

Aim: Few recent studies have been investigating the effect of clone on aroma compounds. The aim of this research work was to study the impact of certified clones from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Duras N on grape quality and rotundone, a sesquiterpene responsible for peppery aroma which has been reported recently in red wines made from this cultivar. © Vigne et Vin Publications Internationales (Bordeaux, France). Source


Geffroy O.,Institute Francais Of La Vigne Et Du Vin Pole Sud Ouest | Dufourcq T.,Institute Francais Of La Vigne Et Du Vin Pole Sud Ouest | Carcenac D.,Institute Francais Of La Vigne Et Du Vin Pole Sud Ouest | Siebert T.,The Australian Wine Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research | Year: 2014

Background and Aims: Rotundone, a potent aroma compound responsible for peppery aroma and flavour in Shiraz, was detected recently in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Duras wines. In 2011 and 2012, two separate experiments were carried out to determine the effect of ripeness and viticultural techniques on rotundone concentration in Duras wine. Methods and Results: Rotundone was measured in wines prepared by microvinification techniques (1 L Erlenmeyer). Accumulation of this compound in wines depended on vintage conditions and the degree of ripening, such that a higher concentration of rotundone was reached 44 days after mid-veraison. Application of exogenous jasmonic acid and grape thinning did not significantly affect rotundone concentration, whereas leaf removal strongly reduced rotundone concentration. Wine from the irrigated treatment had a higher concentration of rotundone, and in most cases, vine water status over the veraison-harvest period was identified as a key variable that was well correlated with observed intraplot variability. Conclusions: These findings confirm that some common viticultural practices can be used to manipulate the peppery character in red wine. Significance of the Study: Our results may assist grape growers to produce Duras, Shiraz and other cultivars where rotundone makes an important contribution to wine aroma. © 2014 Australian Society of Viticulture and Oenology Inc. Source

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