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Goulet E.,Institute Francais Of La Vigne Et Du Vin | Morlat R.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Land Use Policy | Year: 2011

Studies of terroir have been increasingly developed during the last two decades, in different vineyards all around the world. The indigenous knowledge and the know-how of wine growers is an important part of the French terroir concept which must be taken into account in terroir studies. In the middle-Loire Valley (France) results of terroir studies were made readily accessible to all the wine growers through cartographic atlases, including maps of terroir units and their components as well as advisory maps. In this paper, the authors use different kinds of surveys among wine growers for the knowledge of terroir and show the interest of this approach. Surveys among farmers, performed at their home were developed within the framework of terroir studies carried out in the Anjou, Chinon and Sarthe vineyards in the middle-Loire Valley (France). A first category of surveys (59) led at the farm scale were used to characterise different vineyards at the socio-economic level. A second category of surveys (439) carried out at the plot scale have allowed to obtain a knowledge about agro-viticultural practices, and to study the viticultural and grape quality potentials of terroir units, in the regions studied. Finally, telephone surveys among 244 growers in the Anjou region were used to assess the level of perception of terroir studies and their impact through directive and semi-directive questionnaires, Socio-economic surveys at the wine farm scale made it possible to establish a general typology of studied vineyards, to identify their characteristics. Results allowed to distinguish between Chinon and Sarthe vineyards, in terms of operating structure, production potential, and typology of growers. Surveys showed large differences in terms of socio-economic aspects between the two studied vineyards. Agro-viticultural surveys, at the plot scale, provided significant differences for grape varieties, rootstocks and soil management practices, between the Chinon and Sarthe vineyards. Crossed with soils properties, these surveys allowed to identify the plant behaviour in terms of timing of the growth cycle, water supply and vine vigour and the potential for grape quality in different terroir units within an experimental area in Anjou vineyards. In these same vineyards, surveys about the perception and the acceptance of terroir studies by growers have shown that terroir studies and cartographic atlases, readily available to wine growers, were known by a large number of producers and used fairly frequently by some of them. Results of surveys indicated that about one quarter of growers were really influenced in their agro-viticultural practices by terroir studies. The rigorous and systematic use of adapted surveys bodes well for the rapid development of terroir studies in different vineyards. They make it possible to significantly alleviate classic studies without decreasing their relevance and they constitute an active contribution of wine growers to the characterization of terroir units. In addition, surveys can allow to assess the level of adaptation of agro-viticultural practices in use in the vineyards. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: WASTE-7-2015 | Award Amount: 7.82M | Year: 2016

NoAW : No Agro-Waste. Innovative approaches to turn agricultural waste into ecological and economic assets. Driven by a near zero-waste society requirement, the goal of NoAW project is to generate innovative efficient approaches to convert growing agricultural waste issues into eco-efficient bio-based products opportunities with direct benefits for both environment, economy and EU consumer. To achieve this goal, the NoAW concept relies on developing holistic life cycle thinking able to support environmentally responsible R&D innovations on agro-waste conversion at different TRLs, in the light of regional and seasonal specificities, not forgetting risks emerging from circular management of agro-wastes (e.g. contaminants accumulation). By involving all agriculture chain stakeholders in a territorial perspective, the project will: (1) develop innovative eco-design and hybrid assessment tools of circular agro-waste management strategies and address related gap of knowledge and data via extensive exchange through the Knowledge exchange Stakeholders Platform, (2) develop breakthrough knowledge on agro-waste molecular complexity and heterogeneity in order to upgrade the most widespread mature conversion technology (anaerobic digestion) and to synergistically eco-design robust cascading processes to fully convert agro-waste into a set of high added value bio-energy, bio-fertilizers and bio-chemicals and building blocks, able to substitute a significant range of non-renewable equivalents, with favourable air, water and soil impacts and (3) get insights of the complexity of potentially new, cross-sectors, business clusters in order to fast track NoAW strategies toward the field and develop new business concepts and stakeholders platform for cross-chain valorisation of agro-waste on a territorial and seasonal basis.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: ISIB-02-2014 | Award Amount: 2.00M | Year: 2015

Building on a methodology for innovation-driven research previously developed and tested, the WINETWORK project has the ambition to stimulate collaborative innovation in the wine sector. The project will implement a methodology that has been successful in promoting demand-driven innovations in previous regional and European projects. This approach is mainly based on the interactions between a network of facilitator agents, several regional technical working groups and one European scientific working group. A participatory approach is used to translate results from science and practical knowledge into technical datasheets that are used to prepare materials adapted to end-users. A bottom-up approach is also used to identify a demand-driven innovation agenda. In the WINETWORK project, the approach will be implemented in ten regions from seven countries representing more than 90% of the EU wine production. The main topic addressed in the network concern the control and the fight against diseases that jeopardise the future production potential of the EU (Grapevine Trunk Diseases and Flavescence Dore). As they represent a threat for the economic viability of the entire sector, these topics have been previously identified as a priority by winegrowers, scientists and decision-makers. As many winegrowers are testing innovative and sustainable approaches to fight these diseases, it is very beneficial to capture these ideas and to share them between EU countries. Innovative practices will be synthesized, tailored and translated to become fully accessible to innovation support services and to winegrowers. The project will then deliver a vast reservoir of existing scientific and practical knowledge related to sustainable vineyard management. It will also provide a methodology that will support all agriculture sectors to enhance innovation-driven research. WINETWORK involves 11 partners of excellence representing the entire innovation chain, from science to farmers.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME-AG | Phase: SME-2012-2 | Award Amount: 1.62M | Year: 2012

Wine market is very competitive. EU producers need to reduce production costs and increase their sustainability standard while improving the quality of their wine. Wine stability is one of the most important quality parameters. To avoid formation of cloudiness or precipitates in bottled wines, producers preventively treat it by mean of physical methods or additives. The present practices for tartaric, protein and oxidative stabilization are not suitable for each type of wine and production facility,in particular in small wineries (conventional and organic); moreover, they involve a large use of energy or water, can negatively affect overall wine quality and processing, impose sometimes the use of large quantities of coadjunts or additives, and can be at the original of significant product looses. Aim of the project is to test effectiveness and suitability in winemaking of biopolymers on new conception or already used in other sectors and to make these new practices available for EU SME wine producers. Addition of biopolymers to wine have shown the ability to inhibit the formation of tartrate crystals, potentially without negative side effects and with no use of energy and water. Other types of biopolymers are known for their ability to absorb proteins in a selective way, and can be adapted to winemaking purpose in order to avoid loss of product and to increase sensorial wine quality. Potential economical, environmental and social benefits are relevant. The project include evaluation of the effect of the treatments on human health and environment, and actions to facilitate the authorization of the new practices by international and European regulatory bodies for conventional and organic winemaking. Extensive dissemination and exploitation activities are foresees to allow fast tak-up of new technologies by SME-AG members and by all European wine producting SMEs.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2012.1.2-04 | Award Amount: 8.49M | Year: 2013

The strategic goal of the project is to help the European vineyard sector facing the increasingly global competition by meeting: * Consumer demands for diversified high quality wines and concerns for food safety * Citizens requests for environment-friendly production systems involving decreased or no use of pesticides and spare of not renewable natural resources * Producers needs of plant material, tools and methods to help them cope with the negative impacts of climate change while responding to demands for quality, environmental friendliness and needs of profitability To reach this overall goal, the project will: * At the plant level, improve and design agricultural practices (canopy management, irrigation, fertilisation, training systems, pest and disease control, etc.) aimed at maximising berry quality, durable resistance to pests and and diseases, and adaptation to climate change (higher CO2, drought, UV light, and higher temperatures) * At the vineyard level, design, develop and test innovative agronomic systems integrating new agricultural practices and taking into account the variability of constraints met by European vineyards grown under a wide range of environments * At the breeding level, diversify grapevine varieties with regard to desirable adaptative traits building on tools and knowledge developed through international breeding and genomic initiatives. The project will combine short, medium, and long-term approaches to respectively conceive innovative viticulture systems, design and test novel agronomic practices and decision support systems, and exploit the genetic diversity of grapevine that all together will ensure a progress towards sustainable viticulture.

Diguta C.F.,University of Burgundy | Vincent B.,Institute Francais Of La Vigne Et Du Vin | Guilloux-Benatier M.,University of Burgundy | Alexandre H.,University of Burgundy | Rousseaux S.,University of Burgundy
Food Microbiology | Year: 2011

Restriction digestion analysis of the ITS products was tested as an easy method to identify isolates of filamentous fungi on grapes. Endonucleases SduI, HinfI, MseI, HaeIII were used. Endonucleases BfmI, Cfr9I, Hpy188I, MaeII or PspGI were used as necessary to complete discrimination. The 43 species studied generated 42 different composite profiles. Only the species P. thomii and P. glabrum gave the same composite profile. 96.3% strains tested could be differentiated to the species level with only four enzymes. Hundred ninety nine strains of filamentous fungi were isolated from various vineyards in Burgundy and identified by this method. Penicillium (58.5%) was the genus the most frequently isolated and no strains of the genus Aspergillus was isolated. P. spinolusum was the most isolated species of Penicillium (22.70%). The species C. cladiosporioides, B. cinerea, E. nigrum, A. alternata, T. koningiopsis, P. diplodiella, C. herbarum, A. alternatum, T. cucumeris and F. oxysporum were also isolated. This technique is a rapid and reliable method appropriate for routine identification of filamentous fungi. This can be used to screen large numbers of isolates from various environments in a short time. This is the first exhaustive study of fungal diversity at species level in vineyard. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: SME-2012-3 | Award Amount: 1.02M | Year: 2012

ADFIMAX aims to improve liquid food safety, by removing mycotoxins and replacing the current filter aid (Kieselguhr) which is a known human carcinogen. This dual objective ensures that our technology will be suited to multi-industrial application; however, our primary target markets are the wine and beer sectors. Both consume large quantities of Kieselguhr and have an ongoing legal and commercial requirement to minimise toxin residues in their products. At the heart of ADFIMAX is a new filter aid product developed in a precursor F7 project: DEMYBE. The ADFIMAX filter aid is based on an innovative treatment process applied to specific, natural, vegetable fibres. This new treatment enhances the fibres ability to preferentially adsorb toxic contaminants from beverages whilst improving their ability to act as a filter aid. Originally aimed at mycotoxin reduction in beer & wine, the technology has also demonstrated the capacity to remove pesticide residues with an efficiency that surpasses alternative methods. In the first instance our work aims to demonstrate the capability of the partners to produce & supply the filter aid in quantities able to meet industrial demand. Two SME partners will scale up production to a capacity of 10tonnes per year so producing the first industrial scale quantities of the ADFIMAX filter aid. In the second phase our work will aim to demonstrate the adequacy of the filter aid technology in real industrial applications. Extensive testing will be performed by three partners whose aim is to fully validate the technology prior to product registration by EU and National bodies. Market potential currently considered as very significant will be confirmed by a market study and business model analysis. There are no known current products available in the market, and none emerging, which possess the features & filtration performance that ADFIMAX can offer to the market.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME-AG | Phase: SME-2012-2 | Award Amount: 1.59M | Year: 2012

Traditionally, wines were produced by the resident grape/winery microbiota, whereas nowadays commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Oenococcus oeni starter cultures are widely used to ensure a manageable process. Despite advantages, this may lead to sensory resemblance of wines from diverse origins. Currently, the competitive nature of global wine market urges for the production of premium wines with regional character. Consumers also call for allergen-free wines made according to natural and organic procedures. To this end, the use of indigenous S. cerevisiae or non-Saccharomyces (wild) yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is a tool to create wine complexity and authenticity, while selected LAB may effectively control malolactic fermentation and thereby eliminate biogenic amines (BA). The innovative scope of this project is to combine native S. cerevisiae with wild yeasts and native O. oeni with other LAB in the development of peculiar multi-species yeast and bacterial starter blends, respectively. These formulations will be carefully designed to fulfill all the essential and desirable winemaking properties to serve as starters in induced wild fermentations for the production of specialty organic or conventional wines. For this purpose, the biodiversity of key EU viticultural areas will be thoroughly screened to identify strains of enological importance as per their phenotypic characters and genetic traits. Their eligibility will be validated in plant-scale fermentations and wines will be evaluated by sensory analysis and consumer acceptance testing. Outcomes will enable (a) launching of wild ferment technology in winemaking, (b) production of innovative, safe terroir wines and (c) compliance with rules on organic wine production and BA content. By these means, the project will assist the SME-AGs from leading wine producing EU countries (France, Italy, Spain, Greece) to enhance marketing abilities towards a more competitive and sustainable wine industry.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IAPP | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-IAPP | Award Amount: 777.71K | Year: 2011

The aim of the AD-WINE project is to offer the opportunity for researchers from academic and industrial backgrounds to exchange knowledge and work together, in order to develop a common project in the field of anaerobic digestion and environmental solutions applied to the wine sector. This industry, which processes millions of tons of grapes every year, has consequences on the environment. The nature of the pollution generated by wineries is mainly organic, but mineral residues, earth, grease, detergents and disinfectants, toxic exogenous contaminants located in the grapes are also generated. This project aims to develop an anaerobic treatment system, using high performance digesters adapted to the treatment of medium size wineries effluents. The development of such digesters would help to lower the energy and operation costs of the plant, as well as significantly reducing the production of sludge and residues, and allowing a better valorisation of by-products and biogas. Thanks to the participation and exchange of personnel, the AD-WINE project partners will create an effective network of research and will collaborate in order to study this treatment system and develop a prototype. This will offer wineries an alternative to other current ways of treating water, offering countless environmental and economical advantages, and would allow the wine sector to comply with the legislation and the European objectives in terms of production of renewable energies. By participating in this project, the non-commercial research participants will have the opportunity to give a practical and commercial value to their research, whilst for the participating SME, it is the chance to gain knowledge on cutting edge technology and to develop innovative products, enhancing its growth and expansion prospects.

Roland A.,Interloire | Vialaret J.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Razungles A.,Montpellier University | Rigou P.,Montpellier University | Schneider R.,Institute Francais Of La Vigne Et Du Vin
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Thiol precursor content in Melon B. and Sauvignon blanc grape juices obtained under vacuum was determined by quantifying cysteinylated and glutathionylated conjugates of 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH) and 4-methyl-4-mercaptopentan-2-one (4MMP). This characterization allowed the study of thiol precursor evolution during ripening of Sauvignon blanc grapes in several viticultural situations together with grape reaction product (GRP) and the main substrate of polyphenoloxidase, that is, caftaric acid. Concentration of precursors greatly increased during ripening except for the cysteinylated conjugate of 4MMP. Precursor evolution was also monitored during the oxidation of grape juice. Addition of oxygen to a grape juice set off the enzymatic oxidation of hydroxycinnamic acids but did not negatively affect precursor concentrations. Part of the glutathionylated precursor of the 3MH was produced during prefermentative operations (up to 140% in Sauvignon blanc). Consequently, this precursor naturally occurring in grapes was also formed during prefermentative operations. The proportion of biogenetic and prefermentary formation of the glutathionylated precursor of 3MH was different under industrial conditions depending on the grape variety considered. Addition of glutathione and hexenal in grape juices of Melon B. and Sauvignon induced an increase of the production of 3MH and consequently of its acetate in the resulting wines. Residual glutathione in must has to be preserved to enhance the aromatic potential of grapes. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

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